Page "Consciousness" Paragraph 22
One of the most influential contributions to this question was an essay written in 1950 by pioneering computer scientist Alan Turing, titled Computing Machinery and Intelligence.
" is too loaded with spurious connotations to be meaningful ; but he proposed to replace all such questions with a specific operational test, which has become known as the Turing test.
In his essay Turing discussed a variety of possible objections, and presented a counterargument to each of them.
The Turing test is commonly cited in discussions of artificial intelligence as a proposed criterion for machine consciousness ; it has provoked a great deal of philosophical debate.
For example, Daniel Dennett and Douglas Hofstadter argue that anything capable of passing the Turing test is necessarily conscious, while David Chalmers argues that a philosophical zombie could pass the test, yet fail to be conscious.