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Page "Ásatrú in the United States" ¶ 2
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from and Icelandic
Some adaptations of the Latin alphabet are augmented with ligatures, such as æ in Old English and Icelandic and Ȣ in Algonquian ; by borrowings from other alphabets, such as the thorn þ in Old English and Icelandic, which came from the Futhark runes ; and by modifying existing letters, such as the eth ð of Old English and Icelandic, which is a modified d. Other alphabets only use a subset of the Latin alphabet, such as Hawaiian, and Italian, which uses the letters j, k, x, y and w only in foreign words.
The primary sources regarding Asgard come from the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Icelandic Snorri Sturluson, and the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from a basis of much older Skaldic poetry.
Examples of cognates in Indo-European languages are the words night ( English ), nuit ( French ), Nacht ( German ), nacht ( Dutch ), nag ( Afrikaans ), nicht ( Scots ), natt ( Swedish, Norwegian ), nat ( Danish ), nátt ( Faroese ), nótt ( Icelandic ), noc ( Czech, Slovak, Polish ), ночь, noch ( Russian ), ноќ, noć ( Macedonian ), нощ, nosht ( Bulgarian ), ніч, nich ( Ukrainian ), ноч, noch / noč ( Belarusian ), noč ( Slovene ), noć ( Serbo-Croatian ), νύξ, nyx ( Ancient Greek, νύχτα / nyhta in Modern Greek ), nox ( Latin ), nakt-( Sanskrit ), natë ( Albanian ), noche ( Spanish ), nos ( Welsh ), nueche ( Asturian ), noite ( Portuguese and Galician ), notte ( Italian ), nit ( Catalan ), noapte ( Romanian ), nakts ( Latvian ) and naktis ( Lithuanian ), all meaning " night " and derived from the Proto-Indo-European ( PIE ), " night ".
Another Indo-European example is star ( English ), str-( Sanskrit ), tara ( Hindi-Urdu ), étoile ( French ), ἀστήρ ( astēr ) ( Greek or ἀστέρι / ἄστρο, asteri / astro in Modern Greek ), stella ( Italian ), aster ( Latin ) stea ( Romanian and Venetian ), stairno ( Gothic ), astl ( Armenian ), Stern ( German ), ster ( Dutch and Afrikaans ), starn ( Scots ), stjerne ( Norwegian and Danish ), stjarna ( Icelandic ), stjärna ( Swedish ), stjørna ( Faroese ), setāre ( Persian ), stoorei ( Pashto ), seren ( Welsh ), steren ( Cornish ), estel ( Catalan ), estrella Spanish, estrella Asturian and Leonese, estrela ( Portuguese and Galician ) and estêre or stêrk ( Kurdish ), from the PIE, " star ".
Danish, together with Swedish, derives from the East Norse dialect group, while the old Norwegian dialects before the influence of Danish and Bokmål is classified as a West Norse language together with Faroese and Icelandic.
A draugr, draug or ( Icelandic ) draugur ( original Old Norse plural draugar, as used here, not " draugrs "), or draugen ( Norwegian, Swedish and Danish, meaning " the draug "), also known as aptrganga (" afturgöngur " in modern Icelandic ) ( literally " after-walker ", or " one who walks after death ") is an undead creature from Norse mythology, a subset of Germanic mythology.
The term Edda ( Old Norse Edda, plural Eddur ) applies to the Old Norse Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, both of which were written down in Iceland during the 13th century in Icelandic, although they contain material from earlier traditional sources, reaching into the Viking Age.
" A third, proposed in 1895 by Eiríkr Magnússon, but since discredited, is that it derives from the Icelandic place name Oddi, site of the church and school where students, including Snorri Sturluson, were educated.
The Poetic Edda, also known as Sæmundar Edda or the Elder Edda, is a collection of Old Norse poems from the Icelandic medieval manuscript Codex Regius (" Royal Book ").
Later the 17th century Icelandic bishop Guðbrandur Thorlaksson, also used the name Ginnungegap to refer to a narrow body of water, possibly the Davis Strait, separating the southern tip of Greenland from Estotelandia, pars America extrema, probably Baffin Island.
Gylfi is tricked in an illustration from Icelandic Manuscript, SÁM 66
The word geyser comes from Geysir, the name of an erupting spring at Haukadalur, Iceland ; that name, in turn, comes from the Icelandic verb geysa, " to gush ", the verb itself from Old Norse.
A 17th-century Nordic scholar, Torfaeus, compared the Icelandic hero Amlodi and the Spanish hero Prince Ambales ( from the Ambales Saga ) to Shakespeare's Hamlet.
In Iceland, the hate speech law is not confined to inciting hatred, as one can see from Article 233 a. in the Icelandic Penal Code, but includes simply expressing such hatred publicly:

from and for
The guerrillas began a frantic search for pails in which to bring water from the spring.
A red-tailed hawk flew in behind them and stayed there, watching for any snakes or rabbits that they might stir up from the side of the road.
Now, here was something of obvious importance to me, yet when I reached for the tickets he snatched them away from my hand.
It was, I felt, possible that they were men who, having received no tickets for that day, had remained in the hall, to sleep perhaps, in the corners farthest removed from the counter with its overhead light.
They closed in fast, kept him from reaching inside his coat for his gun.
Rod shifted his eager eyes from the milling group out in the circle long enough to reply, `` I ain't much of a hand for Dare-Base and Farmer-in-the-Dell, but I'd sure like to get in on the handhold and wrestles ''.
Indeed, you wouldn't live long, for the females either drive the men they've seized from neighboring islands back to their boats after exploiting them for amatory purposes, or they destroy them by revolting but ingenious methods.
Now it did not occur to him even to wonder whether it was wise for Robinson to dive again: Rob was his boy, the kid he had rescued from the streets, the object of his pride.
The marine was alone, for they were impatient people and by now would have vied to knock him from the tree.
A few months ago it was a fairly typical landlord who in the dead of night lugged me up a mountainside to drink from a spring famous in the neighborhood for its clarity and flavor.
The bridge itself rises up from the river, light-flared and enormous, like the outdoor set for an epic opera.
Franklin retired from editing and publishing at the age of 42, and for the next forty-two years devoted himself to public, scientific, and philanthropic interests.
Faulkner, for one, appears to be safe from the accusing fingers of all assailants in this regard.
Though he is also concerned with freeing dance from pedestrian modes of activity, Merce Cunningham has selected a very different method for achieving his aim.
hot-colored verbenas in the corner between the dining-room wall and the side porch, where we passed on our way to the pump with the half-gourd tied to it as a cup by my grandmother for our childish pleasure in drinking from it.
Every morning early, in the summer, we searched the trunks of the trees as high as we could reach for the locust shells, carefully detached their hooked claws from the bark where they hung, and stabled them, a weird faery herd, in an angle between the high roots of the tulip tree, where no grass grew in the dense shade.
And although these insights into the nature of art may be in themselves insufficient for a thoroughgoing philosophy of art, their peculiar authenticity in this day and age requires that they be taken seriously and gives promise that from their very substance, new and valid chapters in the philosophy of art may be written.
Accordingly, it is the aim of this essay to advance a new theory of imitation ( which I shall call mimesis in order to distinguish it from earlier theories of imitation ) and a new theory of invention ( which I shall call symbol for reasons to be stated hereafter ).
It takes a great deal of abstraction to free oneself from the primitive impression of larger unities of power and influence and to view one's world simply as a collection of sense data arranged in such and such sequence and pattern, devoid of all power to move the feelings and actions except in so far as they present themselves for inspection.
They may even enroll a colored student or two for show, though he usually turns out to be from Thailand, or any place other than the American South.
It ignores the sordid financial aspects ( quite conveniently, too, for his audience, who could indulge in moral indignation without visible, or even conscious, discomfort, their money from the transaction having been put away long ago in a good antiseptic brokerage ).
Was it supposed, perchance, that A & M ( vocational training, that is ) was quite sufficient for the immigrant class which flooded that part of the New England world in the post-Civil War period, the immigrants having been brought in from Southern Europe, to work in the mills, to make up for the labor shortage caused by migration to the West??
Strindberg's remedy for this condition was to tear down the old structures and build anew from the ground up.

from and Æsir
As-gard, he conjectures, is the home of the Æsir ( singular Ás ) in As-ia, making a folk etymological connection between the three " As -"; that is, the Æsir were " men of Asia ", not gods, who moved from Asia to the north and some of which intermarried with the peoples already there.
Afterwards, the earth rises again from the sea, is fairer than before, and where Asgard used to be a remnant of the Æsir gather, some coming up from Hel, and talk and play chess all day with the golden chessmen of the ancient Æsir, which they find in the grass ( Section 58 ).
Freyja is so wrathful that all the Æsir ’ s halls beneath her are shaken and the necklace Brísingamen breaks off from her neck.
In the Alvíssmál (" The Sayings of All-Wise "), elves are considered distinct from both the Æsir and the Vanir.
Gangleri comments that Loki created a " pretty terrible family " though important, and asks why the Æsir did not just kill Fenrir there since they expected great malice from him.
After the gods gathered their wits from the immense shock and grief of Baldr's death, Frigg asked the Æsir who amongst them wished " to gain all of her love and favor " by riding the road to Hel.
The Æsir then sent forth messengers to all things to have them weep for Baldr, so that he may return from Hel.
Loki tells Njörðr to be silent, recalling Njörðr's status as once having been a hostage from the Vanir to the Æsir during the Æsir-Vanir War, that the " daughters of Hymir " once used Njörðr " as a pisspot ," urinating in his mouth ( an otherwise unattested comment ).
Freyja, indignant and angry, goes into a rage, causing all of the halls of the Æsir to tremble in her anger, and her necklace, the famed Brísingamen, falls from her.
While Odin states that Vafþrúðnir knows all the fates of the gods, Odin asks Vafþrúðnir " from where Njörðr came to the sons of the Æsir ," that Njörðr rules over quite a lot of temples and hörgrs ( a type of Germanic altar ), and further adds that Njörðr was not raised among the Æsir.
Njörðr originates from Vanaheimr and is devoid of Æsir stock, and he is described as having been traded with Hœnir in hostage exchange with between the Æsir and Vanir.
As one of the three acts of reparation performed by the Æsir for Þjazi's death, Skaði was allowed by the Æsir to choose a husband from amongst them, but given the stipulation that she may not see any part of them but their feet when making the selection.
In the saga, Njörðr is described as having once wed his unnamed sister while he was still among the Vanir, and the couple produced their children Freyr and Freyja from this union, though this custom was forbidden among the Æsir.
Georges Dumézil theorized that in the tale Hadingus passes through all three functions of his trifunctional hypothesis, before ending as an Odinic hero, paralleling Njörðr's passing from the Vanir to the Æsir in the Æsir-Vanir War.
Gagnráðr asks Vafþrúðnir where the Van god Njörðr came from, for though he rules over many hofs and hörgrs, Njörðr was not raised among the Æsir.
More recently, the view put forward by Georges Dumézil based on Indo-European parallels has dominated, wherein the Vanir, like the Æsir, derive from the pre-Germanic heritage of Germanic religion and embody the third of the three " functions " in his trifunctional hypothesis: chthonic and fertility deities.

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