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Central and Anatolian
Stretching inland from the Aegean coastal plain, the Central Anatolian plateau occupies the area between the two zones of the folded coastal ranges in the north and south, extending east to the point where the two ranges converge.
* Central Anatolian deciduous forests: These forests of deciduous oaks and evergreen pines cover the plateau of central Anatolia.
In the Byzantine Empire, Anatolikon called also Theme of the Anatolics ( ανατολικόν θέμα ) was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolian Region.
In the Byzantine Empire, Anatolikon called also Theme of the Anatolics ( ανατολικόν θέμα ) was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolian Region.
It is a matter of considerable scholarly debate whether the biblical " Hittites " signified any or all of: 1 ) the original Hattians ; 2 ) their Indo-European conquerors ( Nesili ), who retained the name " Hatti " for Central Anatolia, and are today referred to as the " Hittites " ( the subject of this article ); or 3 ) a Canaanite group who may or may not have been related to either or both of the Anatolian groups, and who also may or may not be identical with the later Neo-Hittite ( Luwian ) polities.
Stretching inland from the Aegean coastal plain, the Central Anatolian occupies the area between the two zones of the folded mountains, extending east to the point where the two ranges converge.
He developed the Anatolian Hypothesis, which argues that Proto-Indo-Europeans lived 2, 000 years before the Kurgans, in Anatolia, later diffusing throughout the Mediterranean and into Central and Northern Europe.
Petra Goedegebuure describes in her impressive article ’ Central Anatolian languages and languages communities ’ that before the conquering of the land of the Hatti by the kings of Kussara / Nesa ca.
As with most Central Anatolian and inland Black Sea towns, the population is largely conservative, leading to a generally more restricted nightlife that favors dry establishments, although there are some bars, pubs and cafés that offer a mix of contemporary and traditional Turkish folk music.
Antioch in Pisidia – alternatively Antiochia in Pisidia or Pisidian Antioch () and in Roman Empire, Latin: Antiochia Caesareia or Antiochia Caesaria – is a city in the Turkish Lakes Region, which is at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, Aegean and Central Anatolian regions, and formerly on the border of Pisidia and Phrygia, hence also known as Antiochia in Phrygia.
In Antioch, which was visited by crusaders as well, a new people appeared in the 11th century: the Seljuk Turks, who captured the area and founded the Anatolian Seljuk Empire ( Sultanate ) in Central Anatolia.
Muscat grapes are produced in Ankara and Central Anatolian Region.
* in the Eastern Empire Asia ( a small part of the former Asia province, comprising the central part of the western Anatolian coast ) and Achaea ( the Peloponnese and most of Central Greece ).
It located at the eastern part of the Central Anatolian region of Turkey ; it is the second largest province in Turkey.
The majority of Sivas Province shares the climate of the Central Anatolian Region in which the summer seasons are hot and dry while winter seasons are cold and snowy.
Most of the province laid down in Marmara Region but eastern parts of Gölpazarı and Söğüt district and districts of İnhisar and Yenipazar remained in Black Sea Region, smaller southeastern parts of Bozüyük and Söğüt remained in Central Anatolian Region and smaller southwestern part of Bozüyük remained in Aegean Region.
In conclusion, today the major DNA components in Anatolian population are shared with European and neighboring Near Eastern populations and contrast with only a minor share of haplogroups related to Central Asian, South Asian and African affinity, which supports the language replacement hypothesis in the region.
A 2011 study concluded " that the profile of Anatolian populations today is the product not of mass westward migrations of Central Asians and Siberians, or of small-scale migrations into an emptied subcontinent, but instead of small-scale, irregular punctuated migration events that engendered large-scale shifts in language and culture among the diverse " indigenous inhabitants ( p. 32 ).
Specifically, these have been mutual culinary influences to and from Mesopotamian cuisine, Anatolian cuisine, and especially the Central Asian cuisine.

Central and steppe
Cavalry techniques were an innovation of equestrian nomads of the Central Asian and Iranian steppe and pastoralist tribes such as the Persian Parthians and Sarmatians.
Horse taming and horseback culture arose first in the southern steppe grasslands of Central Asia, perhaps approximately in modern Kazakhstan.
The Göktürks became the new leading element amongst the disparate steppe peoples in Central Asia, after they rebelled against the Rouran Khaganate.
Scholarship from the early 20th century literature connected the sudden and apparently devastating Hun appearance as a predatory migration from the more easterly parts of the steppe, i. e. Central Asia.
The history of Kazakhstan describes the human past in the Eurasia's largest segment of the steppe belt that was the home and crossroads for numerous human groups starting with extinct Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus 1 mln – 800, 000 in the Karatau Mountains, Caspian and Balkhash areas ; Neanderthals 140 – 40 thousand years ago in the Karatau Mountains and Central Kazakhstan, and the arrival of the modern Homo Sapiens 40 – 12 thousand years ago in the Southern, Central, and Eastern Kazakhstan.
In the steppe s of Central Asia ( Aqmola Province )
According to the WWF, the territory of Moldova can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Central European mixed forests, the East European forest steppe ( the most territory of the country ), and Pontic steppe ( in the south and southeast ).
Early tribes were nomadic or semi-nomadic due to the arid conditions of the region as the steppe culture in Central Asia was an extension of a larger Eurasian series of horse cultures which spanned the entire spectrum of language families including the Indo-Europeans and Turko-Mongol groups.
The type of desertification caused by year-round pasturing of cattle has been termed the most devastating in Central Asia, with the gravest situations in Turkmenistan and the Kazakh steppe along the eastern and northern coasts of the Caspian Sea.
Originating as nomadic equestrians of Central Asia, they became sedentary during the 7th century, establishing the polity ( khanate ) of Old Great Bulgaria in the Pontic steppe.
The descendants of the Alans, who live in the autonomous republics of Russia and Georgia, speak the Ossetic language which belongs to the Northeastern Iranian language group and is the only remnant of the Scytho-Sarmatian dialect continuum, which once stretched over much of the Pontic steppe and Central Asia.
The world's largest steppe region, often referred to as " the Great Steppe ", is found in southwestern Russia and neighbouring countries in Central Asia, stretching from Ukraine in the west through Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to the Altai, Koppet Dag and Tian Shan ranges.
The inner parts of Anatolia in Turkey, Central Anatolia and East Anatolia in particular and also some parts of Southeast Anatolia, as well as much of Armenia and Iran are largely dominated by cold steppe.
The Scythians ( or ; from Greek ), or Scyths, were an Iranian nomadic people living in Scythia, the region encompassing the Pontic-Caspian steppe ( in Eastern Europe ) and parts of Central Asia throughout the Classical Antiquity.
# Thirdly ( 4. 11 ), in the version which Herodotus said he believed most, the Scythians came from a more southern part of Central Asia, until a war with the Massagetae ( a powerful tribe of steppe nomads who lived just northeast of Persia ) forced them westward.
Tule fog in Stanislaus County in DecemberThe northern Central Valley has a hot Mediterranean climate ( Köppen climate classification Csa ); the more southerly parts in rainshadow zones are dry enough to be Mediterranean steppe ( BShs, as around Fresno ) or even low-latitude desert ( BWh, as in areas around Bakersfield ).
The Bulgars are first mentioned in the 4th century in the vicinity of the North Caucasian steppe, although scholars speculate that their history may go back to the Central Asian nomadic confederations.
Central Asia and the Iranian plateau are home to dry steppe grasslands and desert basins, with montane forests, woodlands, and grasslands in the region's high mountains and plateaux.
While some illustrations show them as straight, the 11th century Song military encyclopedia Wujing Zongyao depicts them with curved blades-possibly an influence from the steppe tribes of Central Asia, who would conquer parts of China during the Song period.
Sabers had been used by Turkic, Tungusic, and other steppe peoples of Central Asia since at least the 8th century CE, and it was a favored weapon among the Mongol aristocracy.
Once more, there would be numerous khanates in the steppe in and around Central Asia, often more of a people than a territorial state, e. g.:
During the 9th century southern Central Asia was under the rule of the Samanids, while the Central Asian steppe was dominated by Turkic nomads such as the Pechenegs, the Oghuz, and the Karluks.

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