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Northern and Crusades
The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Denmark, Germany, Sweden, and Russia delayed indigenous literacy in Estonia.
* 1370 – Northern Crusades: Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights meet in the Battle of Rudau.
The last three books ( 14-16 ), describe Danish conquests on the south shore of the Baltic Sea and wars against Slavic peoples ( the Northern Crusades ), are very valuable for the history of West Slavic tribes ( Polabian Slavs, Pomeranians ) and Slavic paganism.
* 1219 – Northern Crusades: Danish victory at the Battle of Lyndanisse ( modern-day Tallinn ) establishes the Danish Duchy of Estonia.
In the early medieval period, the region's peoples resisted Christianisation and became subject to attack in the Northern Crusades.
In the late 12th century, Henry the Lion, Duke of the Saxons, conquered the region, subjugated its local lords, and Christianized its people, in a precursor to the Northern Crusades.
During the Northern Crusades of the early 13th century, the Old Prussians used this thick forest as a line of defense.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were crusades undertaken by the Christian kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
Swedish and German Catholic campaigns against Russian Eastern Orthodox Christians are also sometimes considered part of the Northern Crusades.
The official starting point for the Northern Crusades was Pope Celestine III's call in 1193 ; but the Christian kingdoms of Scandinavia and the Holy Roman Empire had begun moving to subjugate their pagan neighbors even earlier.
The Northern Crusades provided a rationale for the growth and expansion of the Teutonic Order of German crusading knights which had been founded in Palestine at the end of the 12th century.
The Teutonic Order's attempts to conquer Orthodox Russia ( particularly the Republics of Pskov and Novgorod ), an enterprise endorsed by Pope Gregory IX, can also be considered as a part of the Northern Crusades.
Gregory IX endorsed the Northern Crusades and attempts to conquer Orthodox Russia ( particularly the Pskov Republic and the Novgorod Republic ).
Category: People of the Northern Crusades
Examples include the 13th century Albigensian Crusade and the Northern Crusades.
As an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population.
In 1168 during the Northern Crusades, Denmark mounted a crusade led by Bishop Absalon and King Valdemar the Great against the Wends of Rugia in order to convert them to Christianity.
In the 13th century the area became a battleground in the Northern Crusades.
Category: People of the Northern Crusades
Since the Northern Crusades Estonia became a battleground for centuries where Denmark, Germany, Russia, Sweden and Poland fought their many wars over controlling the important geographical position of the country as a gateway between East and West.
* Northern Crusades
Through Genoese participation on the Crusades, colonies were established in the Middle East, in the Aegean, in Sicily and Northern Africa.

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