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fundamental and rhythmic
In the 1983 " Liber Hymnarius " from Solesmes, it is stated that, " When an ordinary syllable is set to one note, this represents the fundamental rhythmic value used in Gregorian chant ( i. e. valor syllabicus medius ).
" This implies that the one-note syllable ( and thus the fundamental rhythmic value of chant ) is no longer interpreted by Solesmes as being normally short in duration.
The most fundamental rhythmic element in salsa music is a pattern and concept known as clave.
The tenor drummers provide the fundamental rhythmic pulse and the bass drummer anchors the rhythms, providing a strong and steady beat.
Thai music is nonharmonic, melodic, or linear, and as is the case with all musics of this genre, its fundamental organization is horizontal ... Thai music in its horizontal complex is made up of a main melody played simultaneously with variants of it which progress in relatively slower and faster rhythmic units ...

fundamental and figure
The authors set about answering this fundamental question through a detailed investigation of the patient's ability, tactually, ( 1 ) to perceive figure and ( 2 ) to locate objects in space, with his eyes closed ( or turned away from the object concerned ).
For example, the fundamental group of the figure eight is the free group on two letters.
He is a seminal figure in the history of mathematics ; if printed, his works, many of which are of fundamental interest, would occupy between 60 and 80 quarto volumes.
IV, p. 164 ): " The fundamental tenet of the Vedânta school consisted not in denying the existence of matter, that is solidity, impenetrability, and extended figure ( to deny which would be lunacy ), but in correcting the popular notion of it, and in contending that it has no essence independent of mental perception ; that existence and perceptibility are convertible terms.
They were not only seen as a pattern book of heroic figure design, but also as a model of technical procedure ; Annibale ’ s hundreds of preparatory drawings for the ceiling became a fundamental step in composing any ambitious history painting.
He is considered to be the founder of the French Saxophone School and the most representative saxophone soloist of his time, being a fundamental figure in the development of the instrument.
Within this theory the empowered " damsel " can be a female hero rendered powerless and imperiled during her heroic ordeal but who ultimately emerges as a strong figure who claims victory ; yet the male and female versions of such ordeal and empowerment still differ at a fundamental level, in that when there is a character doing the rescuing ( sometimes referred to as " help unlooked for "), he is almost invariably male.
( Since Kitchener's death in 1916, no other major figure opposed this fundamental change to the principles on which the New Army had been raised.
The traditional ( some say fundamental ) signature rhythm figure of merengue is the quintillo, which is essentially a syncopated motif whose pattern is broken by five successive drumhead hits at the transition between every second and third beat, alternating between the hand and the stick.
He made the fundamental decision not to follow Classical models but rather to clothe her in a “ Germanic ” style: her floor length shirt dress was draped in a simpler way, and bound up together with a bearskin it gave the figure a typical “ German ” character according to Schwanthaler.
Professor Sir Peter Bernhard Hirsch FRS ( born 16 January 1925 ) is a leading figure in British materials science who has made fundamental contributions to the application of transmission electron microscopy to metals.

fundamental and heard
On the release of the two prisoners the Levellers held a meeting at the Nag's Head tavern, in which, says Lilburne, " the just ends of the war were as exactly laid open by Mr. John Wildman as ever I heard in my life ", and the party agreed to oppose the execution or deposition of the king till the fundamental principles of the future constitution were settled.
Within the EU, the right of the child to be heard in any proceedings is a fundamental right provided in Article 24 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
Nevertheless, a pitch corresponding to the fundamental may still be heard.
A low pitch ( also known as the pitch of the missing fundamental or virtual pitch ) can sometimes be heard when there is no apparent source or component of that frequency.
However, experiments subsequently showed that when a noise was added that would have masked these distortions had they been present, listeners still heard a pitch corresponding to the missing fundamental, as reported by J. C. R. Licklider in 1954.
The missing fundamental is heard because so many of these components refer to it.
Non-Christians could have " in basic orientation and fundamental decision ," Rahner wrote, " accepted the salvific grace of God, through Christ, although may never have heard of the Christian revelation.
When he first heard of their coup, he exclaimed " this is the happiest moment of my life ", and he wrote that the Bolsheviks were the " expression of the most fundamental longing of the human soul ".
A fundamental aspect of natural justice is that before a decision is made, all parties should be heard on the matter.
It is fundamental to fair procedure that both sides should be heard.
This resonance can be heard by singing or playing loud notes near the drum opening ( this is true of tuning any drum ) and noticing, which pitch decays slowest ( that will either be the fundamental frequency or one of its simple overtones ).
The resonance is most often heard when the fundamental frequency of the string is in unison or an octave lower or higher than the catalyst note, although it can occur for other intervals, such as a fifth, with less effect.
In the case of an interval that is close to a perfect fifth, the strongest beating will be heard at 3 times the fundamental frequency of the lower string ( an octave plus a perfect fifth up ), and 2 times the frequency of the higher string ( an octave up ).
If the finger is placed at the midpoint of the string, the first overtone is heard, which is an octave above the fundamental note which would be played, had the harmonic not been sounded.
" The compilation of so-called " black lists " of individuals and companies suspected of maintaining connections with organisations considered terrorist and the application of the associated sanctions clearly breach every principle of the fundamental right to a fair trial: no specific charges, no right to be heard, no right of appeal, no established procedure for removing one's name from the list.
" The fundamental requisite of due process of law is the opportunity to be heard.
According to El-Dabh, “ I just started playing around with the equipment at the station, including reverberation, echo chambers, voltage controls, and a re-recording room that had movable walls to create different kinds and amounts of reverb .” He further explains: " I concentrated on those high tones that reverberated and had different beats and clashes, and started eliminating the fundamental tones, isolating the high overtones so that in the finished recording, the voices are not really recognizable any more, only the high overtones, with their beats and clashes, may be heard.
Within the EU, the right of the child to be heard in any proceedings is a fundamental right provided in Article 24 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

fundamental and compositions
His greatest achievement are the compositions in all the fundamental 72 melakartha ragas.
Leonardo's battle was a cavalry one, the central section of which was very widely seen before being destroyed, and hugely influential: it " exerted a fundamental change on the whole idea of battle painting, an influence that lasted through the Late Renaissance and the Baroque up until the heroic machines of the Napoleonic painters and even the battle compositions of Delacroix ", according to the art historian Frederick Hartt.
The extra strings ' contribution to classical music typically is more subtle, as compositions in that literature typically do not omit the fundamental, at least for long.
His greatest achievement are the compositions in all the fundamental 72 melakartha ragas.

fundamental and such
Mr. Richard Preston, executive director of the New Hampshire State Planning and Development Commission, in his remarks to the Governors Conference on Industrial Development at Providence on October 8, 1960, warned against the fallacy of attempting to attract industry solely to reduce the tax rate or to underwrite municipal services such as schools when he said: `` If this is the fundamental reason for a community's interest or if this is the basic approach, success if any will be difficult to obtain ''.
... review, on the other hand, provide an independent and civil inquiry into the validity of a conviction and sentence, and as such are generally limited to challenges to constitutional, jurisdictional, or other fundamental violations that occurred at trial.
It is a mathematical tool for finding repeating patterns, such as the presence of a periodic signal which has been buried under noise, or identifying the missing fundamental frequency in a signal implied by its harmonic frequencies.
Some more fundamental structural similarities are things such as:
The Calvinist influence remains in that some fundamental Calvinist doctrines such as unconditional predestination and divine providence remains present in much of Boer culture, who see their role in society as abiding by the national laws and accepting calamity and hardship as part of their Christian duty.
Some, such as computational complexity theory, which studies fundamental properties of computational problems, are highly abstract, while others, such as computer graphics, emphasize real-world applications.
Socialist economists, such as Robin Hahnel, have criticized the term as an ideologically motivated attempt to cast what is in their view the fundamental problems of capitalism as avoidable irregularities.
Laissez-faire advocates criticize the term as an ideologically motivated attempt to cast what is in their view the fundamental problem of government intervention or “ investments ” as an avoidable aberration ; free-market advocates refer to governmental favoritism as " crony socialism ", " venture socialism " or " corporatism, a modern form of mercantilism " to emphasize that the only way to run a profitable business in such systems is to have help from corrupt government officials.
Some constitutions, especially written constitutions, also act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a state's rulers cannot cross, such as fundamental rights.
Some fields, such as computational complexity theory ( which explores the fundamental properties of computational problems ), are highly abstract, whilst fields such as computer graphics emphasise real-world applications.
Others, such as Claude Lévi-Strauss ( who was influenced both by American cultural anthropology and by French Durkheimian sociology ), have argued that apparently similar patterns of development reflect fundamental similarities in the structure of human thought ( see structuralism ).
In novels such as The City and the Stars and the story " The Sentinel " ( upon which 2001: A Space Odyssey was based ) Clarke presents ultra-advanced technologies developed by hyperintelligences limited only by fundamental science.
In philosophy, phenomenology has largely been devoted to fundamental metaphysical questions, such as the nature of intentionality (" aboutness ").
On November 29, 1921, the trustees declared it to be the express policy of the Institute to pursue scientific research of the greatest importance and at the same time " to continue to conduct thorough courses in engineering and pure science, basing the work of these courses on exceptionally strong instruction in the fundamental sciences of mathematics, physics, and chemistry ; broadening and enriching the curriculum by a liberal amount of instruction in such subjects as English, history, and economics ; and vitalizing all the work of the Institute by the infusion in generous measure of the spirit of research.
Basic constructions, such as the fundamental group or fundamental groupoid of a topological space, can be expressed as fundamental functors to the category of groupoids in this way, and the concept is pervasive in algebra and its applications.
Its supposed fundamental importance to life can be seen in words such as aspire, inspire, perspire and spirit, all derived from the Latin spirare.
The fundamental difference between a calculator and computer is that a computer can be programmed in a way that allows the program to take different branches according to intermediate results, while calculators are pre-designed with specific functions such as addition, multiplication, and logarithms built in.
The Cold War meant that cryptography remained important, with fundamental advances such as public-key cryptography being developed in the following decades.
The text is fundamental to both philosophical and religious Taoism ( Daojia,, Pinyin: Dàojiā ; Daojiao,, Pinyin: Dàojiào ) and strongly influenced other schools, such as Legalism, Confucianism and Chinese Buddhism, which when first introduced into China was largely interpreted through the use of Daoist words and concepts.
Dharma is also used to refer to the direct teachings of the Buddha, especially the discourses on the fundamental principles ( such as the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path ), as opposed to the parables and to the poems.
Euclid's proofs depend upon assumptions perhaps not obvious in Euclid's fundamental axioms, in particular that certain movements of figures do not change their geometrical properties such as the lengths of sides and interior angles, the so-called Euclidean motions, which include translations and rotations of figures.

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