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Page "Politics of Georgia (country)" ¶ 2
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Abkhazia and South
Upper Lars is the only land border crossing that does not go through Georgia's Russian-backed breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
The other two roads linking Georgia and Russia run through South Ossetia and Abkhazia, effectively barring them to international traffic.
Georgia: Total population with ( top blue curve ) and without ( bottom red curve ) Abkhazia and South Osetia, in millions.
This figure represents the total population, including the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, whose population in 2005 was estimated at 178, 000 and 49, 200, respectively.
Without Abkhazia and South Osetia, the population in the regions controlled by the central government of Georgia was 4, 321, 500 in 2005 and 4, 382, 100 in 2008 ( compare the 2008 figure with the CIA estimate of 4, 630, 841 for all of Georgia, including Abkhazia and South Osetia ).
The Georgian state is highly centralized, except for the autonomous regions of Abkhazia, Adjara and South Ossetia.
Economic recovery had been hampered by the separatist disputes in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, resistance to reform on the part of some corrupt and reactionary factions, and Asian financial crisis.
** EUMM Georgia, from 2008 ( Georgia, South Ossetia and Abkhazia ) – 21 out of 320 soldiers from 26 countries
Nicaragua maintains relations with the Republic of China instead of the People's Republic of China and recognises Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent states.
Nicaragua recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia on September 5, 2008.
At a press conference in November 2008, Nicaraguan Foreign Minister Samuel Santos Lopez said, " Certainly, we think that the decision recognize independent Abkhazia and South Ossetia was fair and appropriate.
Nicaragua extended diplomatic recognition to South Ossetia and Abkhazia on 5 September 2008.
At a press conference in November 2008, Nicaraguan Foreign Minister Samuel Santos Lopez said, " Certainly, we think that the decision recognize independent Abkhazia and South Ossetia was fair and appropriate.
Whilst on a state visit to Russia in December 2008, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega expressed his desire to travel to Abkhazia and South Ossetia in the future, and stated that Nicaragua is in solidarity with the people of the two countries.
Georgia responded to Nicaragua's concurrent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by cutting diplomatic relations with the Central American state at the end of November 2008.
Along the 20, 139-kilometer land frontier, Russia has boundaries with 14 countries: Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland ( via the Kaliningrad Oblast ), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, the People's Republic of China and North Korea.
* On August 26, 2008 Russia formally recognises the disputed Georgian regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent states.
Nevertheless, Russian President Vladimir Putin stated in September 2006 that Russia might veto a UN Security Council proposal on Kosovo's final status that applied different standards than those applied to the separatist Georgian regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
In the Caucasian region of the former Soviet Union the phenomenon of population transfer along ethnic lines has affected many thousands of individuals in Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh and Azerbaijan proper ; from Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Georgia proper ; as well as from Chechnya and adjacent areas within Russia.
In the fall of 2008, Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
Before the 63rd UN General Assembly, Bangladesh's foreign minister had met with James F. Moriarty who is continuing his lobbying for Bangladesh's recognition of Kosovo and not to recognise the break-away regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

Abkhazia and Ossetia
Both sides reported that mercenaries from the Ukraine fought for Georgia against Russia and the Russian-backed South Ossetia and Abkhazia in the 2008 South Ossetia war.
: Abkhazia ; Kosovo ; Nagorno-Karabakh ; Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus ; State of Palestine ; Sahrawi Republic ( which does not recognise Israel as a state ); Somaliland ; South Ossetia ; and Transnistria.
On August 8, 2008, the 2008 South Ossetia war broke out, which involved Georgia, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, and Russia.

Abkhazia and have
The Georgian government claims to have restored " constitutional order " in the Upper Kodori Gorge-The sole Georgia-controlled part of breakaway region Abkhazia.
" In a press release, Carlot stated: " Vanuatu is neutral ; our recognition of Abkhazia does not in any way mean that we cannot have diplomatic relations with the Republic of Georgia.
Some, however, have considered the implementation of this law unrealistic and concerns have been made that it will drive people away from Abkhazia and hurt the independent press due to a significant share of non-Abkhaz speakers among ethnic minorities as well as Abkhaz themselves, and a shortage of teachers of Abkhaz.
The provinces of Abkhazia and South Ossetia are virtually devoid of Jews due to the military conflicts in these areas, but some of them have remained and a synagogue is active in Sukhumi ( see articles History of the Jews in Abkhazia and History of the Jews in South Ossetia ).
" In 1992 – 93 he is widely believed to have received assistance from the GRU when he and his brother Shirvani fought in Abkhazia, a breakaway part of Georgia ".
It is thought to have spread through Georgia from the region of Abkhazia.
* Georgia has 220, 000-300, 000 IDPs due to displacement of the ethnic Georgian population who have fled Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
A wildwoman named Zana is said to have lived in the isolated mountain village of T ' khina fifty miles from Sukhumi in Abkhazia in the Caucasus ; some have speculated she may have been an Almas, but hard evidence is lacking.
They have been able to give some force to the opposition, as veterans form a powerful force in Abkhazia, and until recently, President Vladislav Ardzinba had been considered virtually untouchable.
Keilash Bey seems to have been the first presiding prince of Abkhazia ( circa 1780-1808 ) to embrace Islam, and was given, on this account, the fort of Suhum-Kale.
The breakaway republics of Abkhazia ( Georgia ), South Ossetia ( Georgia ), and Transnistria ( Moldova ) have also declared Russian as official in the territories under their control.
One of his recent proposals was an unsuccessful attempt to have the segment of the Abkhaz constitution overturned that demanded that a presidential candidate have lived in Abkhazia for more than five years before running for office.
He was not eligible to run in the October 2004 presidential election in Abkhazia because of a requirement that candidates must have been resident in Abkhazia for five years.
The Cossacks have actively participated in some of the more abrupt political developments following the dissolution of the Soviet Union: South Ossetia, Crimea, Kosovo, Transnistria and Abkhazia.
Anapa, Sochi, and several other cities along the Russian coast of the Black Sea have enjoyed a substantial increase in popularity since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which left traditional Soviet resort cities in Crimea and Abkhazia on the other side of the national border.
The term kobza is of Turkic origin and is related to the terms kobyz and komuz, thought to have been introduced into the Ukrainian language in the 13th century with the migration of a sizable group of Turkic people from Abkhazia settling in the Poltava region.
Relations between Georgia and Abkhazia have remained tense after the war.
Shevardnadze failed to have Kitovani ’ s force withdrawn from Abkhazia and the country became involved in a thirteen-month-long war which would end in Georgia ’ s loss of control over most of Abkhazia.

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