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According and cooperative
According to the Synergism Hypothesis, synergistic effects have been the drivers of cooperative relationships of all kinds and at all levels in living systems.
According to Country Reports on Terrorism 2010, Sudan remained a cooperative partner of the USA in global counterterrorism efforts against al-Qaeda ( AQ ) in 2010.
" According to the cooperative arrangement, members of the coop who spent at least $ 300 in one of its stores would receive a dividend at the end of the year.
According to Stirner, individuals should only entertain temporary associations between themselves, agreeing in mutual aid and cooperation for a period of time, but only when in each individual's interest ( perhaps anticipating cooperative games ):
According to the literature on conflict resolution, a cooperative conflict resolution style is recommended above all others ( Sternberg & Dobson, 1987 ; Jarboe & Witteman, 1996 )
According to March and Simon, organizations have to be considered as cooperative systems with a high level of information processing and a vast need for decision making at various levels.
According to the 1860 census of Millcreek Township in Hamilton County, Ohio, Laura and Henry were living in the Bond Hill area, the site on which, ten years later, Watkin's cooperative would situate their new community.
According to Sarkar, cooperatives will succeed if they have ethical leadership, strong management, and the people ’ s whole-hearted acceptance of the cooperative system.
According to Peace Magazine author / editor Metta Spencer, the program " punished the other player for selfish behaviour and rewarded her for cooperative behaviour — but the punishment lasted only as long as the selfish behaviour lasted.
According to the 1936 Soviet Constitution, the Procurator General exercised the highest degree of direct or indirect ( through subordinate public procurators ) control over the accurate execution of laws by all ministries, departments, their subordinate establishments and enterprises, executive and administrative bodies of local Soviets, cooperative organizations, officials ( including judges in court proceedings ), and citizens on behalf of the state.
According to Reijo Siltala cooperative learning is significant in business field.
" According to Thomas G. Weiss, director of the Ralph Bunche Institute for International Studies at the Graduate Center ( CUNY ) and editor ( 2000 – 05 ) of the journal Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, "' Global governance '— which can be good, bad, or indifferent — refers to concrete cooperative problem-solving arrangements, many of which increasingly involve not only the United Nations of states but also ' other UNs ,' namely international secretariats and other nonstate actors.
According to Article 49 "... restrictions on the freedom of establishment of nationals of a Member State in the territory of another Member State shall be prohibited .... Freedom of establishment shall include the right to take up and pursue activities as self-employed persons and to set up and manage undertakings, in particular companies or firms within the meaning of the second paragraph of Article 54 ..." This second paragraph defines ' companies or firms ' as "... companies or firms constituted under civil or commercial law, including cooperative societies, and other legal persons governed by public or private law, save for those which are non-profit-making.
According to Reischauer, " The cooperative, relativistic Japanese is not thought of as the bland product of a social conditioning that has worn off all individualistic corners, but rather as the product of firm inner self-control that has made him master of his ... anti-social instincts ... Social conformity ... is no sign of weakness but rather the proud, tempered product of inner strength.
According to PKP leaders, particularly retired General Edi Sudrajat, PKP's leader, Golkar was insufficiently cooperative with reform movements then active.

According and economist
According to economist Eduard Aghajanov, Armenia could have repaid them with low-interest loans from other, presumably Western sources, or with some of its hard currency reserves which then totaled about $ 450 million.
According to economist John Quiggin, the standard features of " economic fundamentalist rhetoric " are " dogmatic " assertions and the claim that anyone who holds contrary views is not a real economist.
According to the what economist Nicholas Barr describes as the " classical definition of income :" the 1938 Haig-Simons definition, " income may be defined as the ... sum of ( 1 ) the market value of rights exercised in consumption and ( 2 ) the change in the value of the store of property rights ..." Since the consumption potential of non-monetary goods, such as leisure, cannot be measured, monetary income may be thought of as a proxy for full income.
According to Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises, who had met Weber during his time at the University of Vienna,
According to Rajiv Sethi, an economist at Columbia University, black-white segregation in housing is slowly declining for most metropolitan areas in the US Racial segregation or separation can lead to social, economic and political tensions.
According to the economist George Selgin in his paper " Gresham's Law ":
According to ecological economist Robert Costanza:
According to economist Murray Rothbard:
According to economist theorists, companies receive a convenience yield by holding inventories of certain commodities.
According to economist William Stanley Jevons ( 1875 ), representative money arose because metal coins often were " variously clipped or depreciated " during use, but using representations for the value stored in banks ensured its worth.
According to economist Steve Keen, the " deleveraging " moments when they ( or the governments they live under ) pay down debt instead of spending on consumption or investment in real-economy infrastructure, result in economic crises or even depressions ( such as The Great Depression ).
According to health economist Uwe Reinhardt, " strictly speaking, the term ' socialized medicine ' should be reserved for health systems in which the government operates the production of health care and provides its financing.
According to economist Frank Knight, it is different from risk, where there is a specific probability assigned to each outcome ( as when flipping a fair coin ).
According to economist Robin Hanson, in 1990 the first known corporate prediction market was used at Xanadu.
According to economist Stephen P. Magee, the benefits of free trade outweigh the losses by as much as 100 to 1.
According to the Marxist economist Ernest Mandel, who popularised the term with his 1972 PhD dissertation, late-stage capitalism will be dominated by the machinations – or perhaps better, fluidities – of financial capital ; and also by the increasing commodification and industrialisation of ever more inclusive sectors of human life.
According to economist Michael Hudson, China has said, " we don't want to make any more foreign exchange reserve of any paper currency, because all the paper currencies are government debt currencies.
According to economist and historian Murray Rothbard, between 1839 and 1843, real consumption increased by 21 percent and real gross national product increased by 16 percent, despite the fact that real investment fell by 23 percent and the money supply shrank by 34 percent.
According to a review by Geoffrey M. Hodgson, the term " social Darwinism " was first used in an English-language academic journal in an 1895 book review by the Harvard economist Frank Taussig ( it had been used as early as 1877 in Europe ).
According to the work of Nobel prize winning economist and expert on famines Amartya Sen, most famines do not result just from lower food production, but also from an inappropriate or inefficient distribution of the food, often compounded by lack of information and indeed misinformation as to the extent of the problem.
According to a study by economist David Card, deregulation resulted in the shift of approximately 5, 000 to 7, 000 airline mechanic jobs from the major trunk airlines to smaller carriers between 1978 and 1984.
According to economist Claudia Goldin, the success of the cliometric revolution had as an unintended consequence the disappearance of economic historians from history departments.
" According to Keynesian economist, Paul Krugman, the work of Friedman and Schwartz became dominant among mainstream economists by the 1980s but should be reconsidered in light of Japan's Lost Decade of the 1990s.

According and Charles
According to Charles Rostaing, this act of formal ' foundation ,' according certain privileges to the town, was a means of regenerating the destroyed town of Barcilona.
According to Charles Aaron, power ballads came into existence in the early 1970s, when rock stars attempted to convey profound messages to audiences.
According to Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, characteristics such as camouflage that help an animal to survive will tend to evolve in any population.
According to Charles Darwin's 1859 theory of natural selection, features such as camouflage evolved by providing individual animals with a reproductive advantage, enabling them to leave more offspring, on average, than other members of the same species.
According to Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, they initiated the French into a new way of laughing, and introduced people to the mystery and purport of colour by ideas.
According to Gay, Herbert had relatively few followers, and it was not until the 1680s that Herbert found a true successor in Charles Blount ( 1654 – 1693 ).
According to Charles Holcombe, the early Tujue population was rather heterogeneous and many of the names of Göktürk rulers are not even Turkic.
According to the act of settlement of 1499, George's Protestant brother Heinrich was now heir prospective ; but George, disregarding his father's will, sought to disinherit his brother and to bequeath the duchy to Ferdinand, brother of Charles V. His sudden death prevented the carrying out of this intention.
According to Frankish custom, Louis had expected to share his inheritance with his brothers, Charles the Younger, King of Neustria, and Pepin, King of Italy.
According to contemporary royalist legal theory, the Long Parliament was regarded as having been automatically dissolved from the moment of Charles I's execution on 30 January 1649.
According to Charles Nayoumealuk, who was interviewed in Nanook Revisited ( 1988 ), " the two women in Nanook-Nyla ( Alice Nuvalinga ) and Cunayou ( whose real name we do not know ) were not Allakariallak's wives, but were in fact common-law wives of Flaherty.
According to Charles C. Mann's, " 1491 ", only the lower classes of Aztec society were polytheistic.
According to historians like Charles Perry, the Arabs adapted noodles for long journeys in the 5th century, the first written record of dry pasta.
According to Henry Petroski, transcendentalist philosopher Henry David Thoreau discovered how to make a good pencil out of inferior graphite using clay as the binder ; this invention was prompted by his father's pencil factory in Concord, which employed graphite found in New Hampshire in 1821 by Charles Dunbar.
According to Charles Joseph Chamberlain,
According to his biographers, King lacked the typical personal attributes of great leaders, especially in comparison with Franklin D. Roosevelt of the U. S., Winston Churchill of Great Britain, Charles de Gaulle of France, or even Joey Smallwood of Newfoundland.
According to Charles Tilly, " Altogether, about 100 million people died as a direct result of action by organized military units backed by one government or another over the course of the century.
According to Charles MacKay, this had little effect on the creation of " Bubbles ", ephemeral joint-stock companies created during the hysteria of the times.
According to legend, when required to kiss the foot of King Charles, as a condition of the treaty, he refused to perform so great a humiliation, and when Charles extended his foot to Rollo, Rollo ordered one of his warriors to do so in his place.
According to Charles Greville, Melbourne said to his secretary, Tom Young: " I think it's a damned bore.
According to Charles W. Morris, pragmatics tries to understand the relationship between signs and their users, while semantics tends to focus on the actual objects or ideas to which a word refers, and syntax ( or " syntactics ") examines relationships among signs or symbols.
According to Psychology notes written by Dr. Charles Ramskov, a Psychology professor at De Anza College, Rock, Neiser, and Gregory claim that top-down approach involves perception that is an active and constructive process.
According to Muslim accounts of the battle, in the midst of the fighting on the second day ( Frankish accounts have the battle lasting one day only ), scouts from the Franks sent by Charles began to raid the camp and supply train ( including slaves and other plunder ).
According to Creasy, the Muslims ' best strategic choice would have been to simply decline battle, depart with their loot, garrisoning the captured towns in southern Gaul, and return when they could force Charles to a battleground more to their liking, one that maximized the huge advantage they had in their mailed and armored horsemen.

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