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According to economist Frank Knight, it is different from risk, where there is a specific probability assigned to each outcome ( as when flipping a fair coin ).
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According to economist Eduard Aghajanov, Armenia could have repaid them with low-interest loans from other, presumably Western sources, or with some of its hard currency reserves which then totaled about $ 450 million.
According to economist John Quiggin, the standard features of " economic fundamentalist rhetoric " are " dogmatic " assertions and the claim that anyone who holds contrary views is not a real economist.
According to the what economist Nicholas Barr describes as the " classical definition of income :" the 1938 Haig-Simons definition, " income may be defined as the ... sum of ( 1 ) the market value of rights exercised in consumption and ( 2 ) the change in the value of the store of property rights ..." Since the consumption potential of non-monetary goods, such as leisure, cannot be measured, monetary income may be thought of as a proxy for full income.
According to Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises, who had met Weber during his time at the University of Vienna,
According to Rajiv Sethi, an economist at Columbia University, black-white segregation in housing is slowly declining for most metropolitan areas in the US Racial segregation or separation can lead to social, economic and political tensions.
According to economist theorists, companies receive a convenience yield by holding inventories of certain commodities.
According to economist William Stanley Jevons ( 1875 ), representative money arose because metal coins often were " variously clipped or depreciated " during use, but using representations for the value stored in banks ensured its worth.
According to economist Steve Keen, the " deleveraging " moments when they ( or the governments they live under ) pay down debt instead of spending on consumption or investment in real-economy infrastructure, result in economic crises or even depressions ( such as The Great Depression ).
According to health economist Uwe Reinhardt, " strictly speaking, the term ' socialized medicine ' should be reserved for health systems in which the government operates the production of health care and provides its financing.
According to cooperative economist Charles Gide, the aim of a cooperative wholesale society is to arrange “ bulk purchases, and, if possible, organise production .” The best historical example of this were the English CWS and the Scottish CWS, which were the forerunners to the modern Co-operative Group.
According to economist Robin Hanson, in 1990 the first known corporate prediction market was used at Xanadu.
According to economist Stephen P. Magee, the benefits of free trade outweigh the losses by as much as 100 to 1.
According to the Marxist economist Ernest Mandel, who popularised the term with his 1972 PhD dissertation, late-stage capitalism will be dominated by the machinations – or perhaps better, fluidities – of financial capital ; and also by the increasing commodification and industrialisation of ever more inclusive sectors of human life.
According to economist Michael Hudson, China has said, " we don't want to make any more foreign exchange reserve of any paper currency, because all the paper currencies are government debt currencies.
According to economist and historian Murray Rothbard, between 1839 and 1843, real consumption increased by 21 percent and real gross national product increased by 16 percent, despite the fact that real investment fell by 23 percent and the money supply shrank by 34 percent.
According to a review by Geoffrey M. Hodgson, the term " social Darwinism " was first used in an English-language academic journal in an 1895 book review by the Harvard economist Frank Taussig ( it had been used as early as 1877 in Europe ).
According to the work of Nobel prize winning economist and expert on famines Amartya Sen, most famines do not result just from lower food production, but also from an inappropriate or inefficient distribution of the food, often compounded by lack of information and indeed misinformation as to the extent of the problem.
According to a study by economist David Card, deregulation resulted in the shift of approximately 5, 000 to 7, 000 airline mechanic jobs from the major trunk airlines to smaller carriers between 1978 and 1984.
According to economist Claudia Goldin, the success of the cliometric revolution had as an unintended consequence the disappearance of economic historians from history departments.
" According to Keynesian economist, Paul Krugman, the work of Friedman and Schwartz became dominant among mainstream economists by the 1980s but should be reconsidered in light of Japan's Lost Decade of the 1990s.
According and Frank
According to Capp ’ s longtime friend Milton Caniff, Capp was “ charming ” when he chose to be, but he added, “ He could be very difficult if he didn ’ t like you .” Frank Frazetta described Capp as " exasperating, infuriating, domineering, obnoxious, loud, lots of fun, acidic and lovable.
According to an apocryphal tale from this era, in a televised face-off, either Capp ( on the Dick Cavett Show ) or ( more commonly ) conservative talk show host Joe Pyne ( on his own show ) is supposed to have taunted iconoclastic musician Frank Zappa about his long hair, asking Zappa if he thought he was a girl.
According to Mad writer Frank Jacobs, a letter was once successfully delivered to the magazine through the U. S. mail bearing only Neuman's face, without any address or other identifying information.
According to the official site of the Pro Football Hall of Fame: Barron Hilton agreed after his general manager, Frank Leahy picked the Chargers name when he purchased an AFL franchise for Los Angeles.
According to legend, Tsuburaya's work on The War at Sea ... was so impressive that General MacArthur's film unit is said to have sold footage of the film to Frank Capra for use in Movietone newsreels as actual footage of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
According to a 1986 Variety interview with Frank Capra, Jr., his father had wanted to shoot the film in color, but because the only suitable stock footage he intended to incorporate into the film, such as scenes from a documentary about the Himalayas, was in black and white, he was forced to change his plans.
According to one witness, Holliday drew a " large bronze pistol " ( interpreted by some as Virgil's coach gun ) from under his long coat and shoved it into Frank McLaury's belly, then took a couple of steps back.
* Amy McGrath, ( 2005 ), The Stolen Election, Australia 1987 According to Frank Hardy, Author of Power Without Glory, Towerhouse Publications and H. S.
According to McNelly, he and Frank Herbert had planned to expand this version into a prequel novel to Dune, but Herbert's death two years later prevented the work from being completed.
According to Hitler biographer Ian Kershaw, the organization's " membership list ... reads like a Who's Who of early Nazi sympathizers and leading figures in Munich ", including Rudolf Hess, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, Julius Lehmann, Gottfried Feder, Dietrich Eckart and Karl Harrer.
According to Republican pollster Frank Luntz, " silent majority " is but one of many labels which have been applied to the same group of voters.
According to legend, Frank and Jesse James hid out on Sterling Creek in the 1870s to raise horses and hunt buffalo.
According to Sergeant Frank Lewis, leader of the demolitions squad, " He screwed up somewhere along the line.
According to page 7 of the book Coraopolis, by Gia Tatone, Coraopolis Historical Society ( 2007 ), " The newspaper Frank Braden, Jr. uncovered was simply called the News and was published in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania, on June 5, 1897.
According to the historian Frank Dikötter, " The delusive myth of a Chinese antiquity that abandoned racial standards in favour of a concept of cultural universalism in which all barbarians could ultimately participate has understandably attracted some modern scholars.
According to Frank, Hitler told him that the letters did not prove that the Frankenberger son was his grandfather but rather his grandmother had merely extorted money from Frankenberger by threatening to claim his paternity of her illegitimate child.
According to Joseph Frank, " one possibility is that his protagonist began to develop beyond the boundaries in which he had first been conceived ".
In his documentary The World According to Bush ( May 2004 ), William Karel interviewed Frank Carlucci to discuss the presence of Shafiq bin Laden, Osama bin Laden's estranged brother, at Carlyle's annual investor conference while the September 11 attacks were occurring.
According to Frank S. Nugent, " this third of the trademarked Thin Men takes its murders as jauntily as ever, confirms our impression that matrimony need not be too serious a business and provides as light an entertainment as any holiday-amusement seeker is likely to find.
According to Luciano ’ s evidence, and he is the only one who ever recounted details of the events in any detail, he confirmed that he was appointed as kingpin for the mob, to rule from Cuba until such time as he could find a legitimate way back into the U. S. Entertainment at the conference was provided by, among others, Frank Sinatra who flew down to Cuba with their friends, the Fischetti brothers.
According to Harvey Sachs, Mortimer Frank, and B. H. Haggin, this criticism can be traced to the lack of focus on Toscanini as a conductor rather than his legacy.
According to Frank N. von Hippel, despite the 1979 Three Mile Island accident in Pennsylvania, the NRC has often been too timid in ensuring that America ’ s 104 commercial reactors are operated safely:
According to Frank Arjava Petter, Usui touched the diseased parts of the body, he massaged them, tapped them lightly, stroked them, blew on them, fixed his gaze upon them for two to three minutes, and specifically gave them energy, and used a technique commonly referred to as palm healing as a form of complementary and alternative medicine.