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According to economist and historian Murray Rothbard, between 1839 and 1843, real consumption increased by 21 percent and real gross national product increased by 16 percent, despite the fact that real investment fell by 23 percent and the money supply shrank by 34 percent.
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According to economist Eduard Aghajanov, Armenia could have repaid them with low-interest loans from other, presumably Western sources, or with some of its hard currency reserves which then totaled about $ 450 million.
According to economist John Quiggin, the standard features of " economic fundamentalist rhetoric " are " dogmatic " assertions and the claim that anyone who holds contrary views is not a real economist.
According to the what economist Nicholas Barr describes as the " classical definition of income :" the 1938 Haig-Simons definition, " income may be defined as the ... sum of ( 1 ) the market value of rights exercised in consumption and ( 2 ) the change in the value of the store of property rights ..." Since the consumption potential of non-monetary goods, such as leisure, cannot be measured, monetary income may be thought of as a proxy for full income.
According to Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises, who had met Weber during his time at the University of Vienna,
According to Rajiv Sethi, an economist at Columbia University, black-white segregation in housing is slowly declining for most metropolitan areas in the US Racial segregation or separation can lead to social, economic and political tensions.
According to economist theorists, companies receive a convenience yield by holding inventories of certain commodities.
According to economist William Stanley Jevons ( 1875 ), representative money arose because metal coins often were " variously clipped or depreciated " during use, but using representations for the value stored in banks ensured its worth.
According to economist Steve Keen, the " deleveraging " moments when they ( or the governments they live under ) pay down debt instead of spending on consumption or investment in real-economy infrastructure, result in economic crises or even depressions ( such as The Great Depression ).
According to health economist Uwe Reinhardt, " strictly speaking, the term ' socialized medicine ' should be reserved for health systems in which the government operates the production of health care and provides its financing.
According to economist Frank Knight, it is different from risk, where there is a specific probability assigned to each outcome ( as when flipping a fair coin ).
According to cooperative economist Charles Gide, the aim of a cooperative wholesale society is to arrange “ bulk purchases, and, if possible, organise production .” The best historical example of this were the English CWS and the Scottish CWS, which were the forerunners to the modern Co-operative Group.
According to economist Robin Hanson, in 1990 the first known corporate prediction market was used at Xanadu.
According to economist Stephen P. Magee, the benefits of free trade outweigh the losses by as much as 100 to 1.
According to the Marxist economist Ernest Mandel, who popularised the term with his 1972 PhD dissertation, late-stage capitalism will be dominated by the machinations – or perhaps better, fluidities – of financial capital ; and also by the increasing commodification and industrialisation of ever more inclusive sectors of human life.
According to economist Michael Hudson, China has said, " we don't want to make any more foreign exchange reserve of any paper currency, because all the paper currencies are government debt currencies.
According to a review by Geoffrey M. Hodgson, the term " social Darwinism " was first used in an English-language academic journal in an 1895 book review by the Harvard economist Frank Taussig ( it had been used as early as 1877 in Europe ).
According to the work of Nobel prize winning economist and expert on famines Amartya Sen, most famines do not result just from lower food production, but also from an inappropriate or inefficient distribution of the food, often compounded by lack of information and indeed misinformation as to the extent of the problem.
According to a study by economist David Card, deregulation resulted in the shift of approximately 5, 000 to 7, 000 airline mechanic jobs from the major trunk airlines to smaller carriers between 1978 and 1984.
According to economist Claudia Goldin, the success of the cliometric revolution had as an unintended consequence the disappearance of economic historians from history departments.
" According to Keynesian economist, Paul Krugman, the work of Friedman and Schwartz became dominant among mainstream economists by the 1980s but should be reconsidered in light of Japan's Lost Decade of the 1990s.
According and historian
According to Asinius Quadratus ( quoted in the mid-6th century by Byzantine historian Agathias ) their name means " all men ".
According to the historian Herodotus, the poet threw away his shield to make good his escape from the victorious Athenians then celebrated the occasion in a poem that he later sent to his friend, Melanippus.
According to the historian David O. Stewart, Cornelius Wendell led an acquittal committee, which met in the Astor House in New York ; it collected a bribery fund of up to $ 150, 000 to influence Senators into voting for Johnson's acquittal.
According to comics historian Coulton Waugh, a 1947 poll of newspaper readers who claimed they ignored the comics page altogether revealed that many confessed to making a single exception: Li ' l Abner.
According to film historian Jeffrey Vance, " although he relied upon associates to arrange varied and complex instrumentation, the musical imperative is his, and not a note in a Chaplin musical score was placed there without his assent.
According to the British historian Misha Glenny the murder in March 1929 of Toni Schlegel, editor of a pro-Yugoslavian newspaper Novosti, brought a " furious response " from the regime.
According to historian Yuki Tanaka, " cannibalism was often a systematic activity conducted by whole squads and under the command of officers ".
According to Mike Dash, a Welsh historian, few scientists doubt there are thousands of unknown animals, particularly invertebrates, awaiting discovery ; however, cryptozoologists are largely uninterested in researching and cataloging newly-discovered species of ants or beetles, instead focusing their efforts towards " more elusive " creatures that have often defied decades of work aimed at confirming their existence.
According to historian Christopher Moore, coalition governments in Canada became much less possible in 1919 when the leaders of parties were no longer chosen by elected MPs, but instead began to be chosen by party members.
According to historian of Communism Archie Brown, the memory of the Cultural Revolution, where a form of mass political mobilization turned against the Party and resulted in chaotic destruction, may account for the reticence of educated Chinese to press for an end to one-party rule.
According to chemistry historian Henry Leicester, the influential 1923 textbook Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Reactions by Gilbert N. Lewis and Merle Randall led to the replacement of the term " affinity " by the term " free energy " in much of the English-speaking world.
According to Mark Bollman, a mathematics and calculator historian and associate professor of mathematics at Albion College, the " Construction Master is the first in a long and profitable line of CI construction calculators " which carried them through the 1980s, 1990s, and to the present.
According to historian Michael A. Riff, a common feature of these movements was opposition not only to secularism, but also to both capitalism and socialism.
According to the church historian Eusebius, the Quartodeciman Polycarp ( bishop of Smyrna, by tradition a disciple of John the Evangelist ) debated the question with Anicetus ( bishop of Rome ).
According to the historian N. D. A. Kemp, the origin of the contemporary debate on euthanasia started in 1870. which will lead to unacceptable consequences.
According to an article by the math historian Kenneth May, “ Maps utilizing only four colours are rare, and those that do usually require only three.
According to the historian Polybius, considerable debate took place in Rome on the question of whether to accept the Mamertines ' appeal for help, and thus likely enter into a war with Carthage.
According to the historian Philinus, this army was composed of 50, 000 infantry, 6, 000 cavalry, and 60 elephants.
" According to historian Piers Brendon, " Orwell was the saint of common decency who would in earlier days, said his BBC boss Rushbrook Williams, ' have been either canonised – or burnt at the stake '".
According to the 11th century Byzantine historian Georgios Kedrenos an uncial manuscript of Matthew's Gospel, believed to be that found by Anthemios, was then still preserved in the Chapel of St Stephen in the imperial palace.
According to science and technology historian Bert S. Hall: " It goes without saying, however, that historians bent on special pleading, or simply with axes of their own to grind, can find rich material in these terminological thickets.