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According to economist theorists, companies receive a convenience yield by holding inventories of certain commodities.
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According to economist Eduard Aghajanov, Armenia could have repaid them with low-interest loans from other, presumably Western sources, or with some of its hard currency reserves which then totaled about $ 450 million.
According to economist John Quiggin, the standard features of " economic fundamentalist rhetoric " are " dogmatic " assertions and the claim that anyone who holds contrary views is not a real economist.
According to the what economist Nicholas Barr describes as the " classical definition of income :" the 1938 Haig-Simons definition, " income may be defined as the ... sum of ( 1 ) the market value of rights exercised in consumption and ( 2 ) the change in the value of the store of property rights ..." Since the consumption potential of non-monetary goods, such as leisure, cannot be measured, monetary income may be thought of as a proxy for full income.
According to Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises, who had met Weber during his time at the University of Vienna,
According to Rajiv Sethi, an economist at Columbia University, black-white segregation in housing is slowly declining for most metropolitan areas in the US Racial segregation or separation can lead to social, economic and political tensions.
According to economist William Stanley Jevons ( 1875 ), representative money arose because metal coins often were " variously clipped or depreciated " during use, but using representations for the value stored in banks ensured its worth.
According to economist Steve Keen, the " deleveraging " moments when they ( or the governments they live under ) pay down debt instead of spending on consumption or investment in real-economy infrastructure, result in economic crises or even depressions ( such as The Great Depression ).
According to health economist Uwe Reinhardt, " strictly speaking, the term ' socialized medicine ' should be reserved for health systems in which the government operates the production of health care and provides its financing.
According to economist Frank Knight, it is different from risk, where there is a specific probability assigned to each outcome ( as when flipping a fair coin ).
According to cooperative economist Charles Gide, the aim of a cooperative wholesale society is to arrange “ bulk purchases, and, if possible, organise production .” The best historical example of this were the English CWS and the Scottish CWS, which were the forerunners to the modern Co-operative Group.
According to economist Robin Hanson, in 1990 the first known corporate prediction market was used at Xanadu.
According to economist Stephen P. Magee, the benefits of free trade outweigh the losses by as much as 100 to 1.
According to the Marxist economist Ernest Mandel, who popularised the term with his 1972 PhD dissertation, late-stage capitalism will be dominated by the machinations – or perhaps better, fluidities – of financial capital ; and also by the increasing commodification and industrialisation of ever more inclusive sectors of human life.
According to economist Michael Hudson, China has said, " we don't want to make any more foreign exchange reserve of any paper currency, because all the paper currencies are government debt currencies.
According to economist and historian Murray Rothbard, between 1839 and 1843, real consumption increased by 21 percent and real gross national product increased by 16 percent, despite the fact that real investment fell by 23 percent and the money supply shrank by 34 percent.
According to a review by Geoffrey M. Hodgson, the term " social Darwinism " was first used in an English-language academic journal in an 1895 book review by the Harvard economist Frank Taussig ( it had been used as early as 1877 in Europe ).
According to the work of Nobel prize winning economist and expert on famines Amartya Sen, most famines do not result just from lower food production, but also from an inappropriate or inefficient distribution of the food, often compounded by lack of information and indeed misinformation as to the extent of the problem.
According to a study by economist David Card, deregulation resulted in the shift of approximately 5, 000 to 7, 000 airline mechanic jobs from the major trunk airlines to smaller carriers between 1978 and 1984.
According to economist Claudia Goldin, the success of the cliometric revolution had as an unintended consequence the disappearance of economic historians from history departments.
" According to Keynesian economist, Paul Krugman, the work of Friedman and Schwartz became dominant among mainstream economists by the 1980s but should be reconsidered in light of Japan's Lost Decade of the 1990s.
According and theorists
According to other social contract theorists, citizens can withdraw their obligation to obey or change the leadership, through elections or other means including, when necessary, violence, when the government fails to secure their natural rights ( Locke ) or satisfy the best interest of society ( called the " general will " in Rousseau, who is more concerned with forming new governments than in overthrowing old ones ).
According to some theorists, the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in its modern past has influenced Japanese popular culture to include many apocalyptic themes.
According to labor historian Philip S. Foner, the Wobbly conception of industrial democracy is intentionally not presented in detail by IWW theorists ; in that sense, the details are left to the " future development of society ".
According to certain occult theorists, a hidden treasure, or alternatively, some form of occult mystery, is hidden within Olyphant.
According to Thomas A Potterfield, many organizational theorists and practitioners regard employee empowerment as one of the most important and popular management concepts of our time.
* According to some conspiracy theorists, during the military investigation of green fireballs in New Mexico, UFOs were photographed by a tracking camera over White Sands Proving Grounds on April 27, 1949.
According to conspiracy theorists, Maccabee says this result was apparently suppressed from the final report.
According to some theorists, the presence or absence of democracy in a country's past can have a significant effect on its later dealings with democracy.
According to some oscillatory universe theorists, the Big Bang was simply the beginning of a period of expansion that followed a period of contraction.
According to Transpersonal theorists western schools of psychology have had a tendency to dismiss or pathologize transpersonal levels, equating them with regressive pathological conditions belonging to a lower level.
According to these theorists, teaching in multiple overlapping sensory systems benefits learning, and they encourage teachers to use content and media that integrates well with the visual, auditory, and kinesthetic systems whenever possible.
According to Melucci, one of the leading new social movement theorists, these movements arise not from relations of production and distribution of resources but within the sphere of reproduction and the life world, as a result of which, the concern has shifted from the sole production of economic resources directly connected to the needs for survival or for reproduction to cultural production of social relations, symbols and identities.
According to moral sense theorists, certain moral truths are known via this moral sense simply on the basis of experience, not inference.
According to republican theorists of freedom, like the historian Quentin Skinner or the philosopher Philip Pettit, one's liberty should not be viewed as the absence of interference in one's actions, but as non-dependence.
According to some feminist media theorists, news is like fictional genres that impose order and interpretation on its materials by means of narrative.
According to Soviet theorists, the basic character of Soviet foreign policy was set forth in Vladimir Lenin's Decree on Peace, adopted by the Second Congress of Soviets in November 1917.
* According to conspiracy theorists, there is a Council of 13 group that is part of or working for the Illuminati.
According to these theorists, whatever attracts each member to a particular group causes them to put more emphasis on the group than on individuals.
According to some theorists, this six-steps description of the nursing process is outdated and misrepresents nursing as linear and atomic.
According to Susan Bayly: Those like ( Sir William ) Hunter, as well as the key figures of H. H. Risley ( 1851 – 1911 ) and his protégé Edgar Thurston, who were disciples of the French race theorist Topinard and his European followers, subsumed discussions of caste into theories of biologically determined race essences, ... Their great rivals were the material or occupational theorists led by the ethnographer and folklorist William Crooke ( 1848 – 1923 ), author of one of the most widely read provincial Castes and Tribes surveys, and such other influential scholar-officials as Denzil Ibbetson and E. A. H. Blunt.
According to conflict theorists such as Marvin Wolfgang, Hubert Blalock and William Chambliss, the disproportionate representation of racial minorities in crime statistics and in the prison population is the result of race-and class-motivated disparities in arrests, prosecutions and sentencing rather than differences in actual participation in criminal activity, an approach which has also been taken by proponents of critical race theory.
According to Dubnov, assimilation was not a natural phenomenon and the Jewish political struggle should be centered on a Jewish autonomy based upon community, language and education, and not upon class struggle as advocated by Bundist theorists.
According to TMT theorists, symbols that create cultural worldviews are fiercely protected as representations of actual life.