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According to science and technology historian Bert S. Hall: " It goes without saying, however, that historians bent on special pleading, or simply with axes of their own to grind, can find rich material in these terminological thickets.
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According and science
According to Cordwainer Smith scholar Alan C. Elms, this speculation first reached print in Brian Aldiss's 1973 history of science fiction, Billion Year Spree ; Aldiss, in turn, claimed to have gotten the information from Leon Stover.
According to David, the Romano-Germanic legal systems included those countries where legal science was formulated according to Roman Law, whereas common law countries are those where law was created from the judges.
According to CiteSeer, Ian Clarke's " Freenet: A Distributed Anonymous Information Storage and Retrieval System " was the most cited computer science paper of 2000.
According to Eric S. Raymond, the Open source and Free Software hacker subculture developed in the 1960s among ‘ academic hackers ’ working on early minicomputers in computer science environments in the United States.
According to Kuhn, each new paradigm re-writes the history of its science to present by selection and distortions the former paradigm as its forerunner.
According to Swinford, this change can be attributed in part to the fact that " science and technical culture have changed perceptions of the natural world, have significantly changed the natural world itself, thereby altering the vocabulary of symbols applicable to epistemological and allegorical attempts to understand it.
According to epidemiologist David Michaels, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environment, Safety, and Health in the Clinton Administration, the tobacco industry invented the " sound science " movement in the 1980s as part of their campaign against the regulation of second-hand smoke.
According to Gödel mathematical logic was " a science prior to all others, which contains the ideas and principles underlying all sciences.
According to the foreword of Ubik: The Screenplay ( by Tim Powers, a friend of Dick's and fellow science fiction writer ), Dick had an idea for the film which involved " the film itself appearing to undergo a series of reversions: to black-and-white, then to the awkward jerkiness of very early movies, then to a crookedly jammed frame which proceeds to blacken, bubble and melt away, leaving only the white glare of the projection bulb, which in turn deteriorates to leave the theater in darkness, and might almost leave the moviegoer wondering what sort of dilapidated, antique jalopy he'll find his car-keys fitting when he goes outside.
:" According to physicalism, the language of physics is the universal language of science and, consequently, any knowledge can be brought back to the statements on the physical objects.
According to BBC, 17 % of computer science students could not find work in their field 7 months after graduation in 2009 which was the highest rate of the university majors surveyed while 0 % of medical students were unemployed in the same survey.
According to Gould " stasis may emerge as the theory's most important contribution to evolutionary science.
According to Bloomberg, Russia is considered well ahead of most other resource-rich countries in its economic development, with a long tradition of education, science, and industry.
According to Kurzweil's argument, since growth in so many fields of science and technology depends upon computing power, these improvements translate into exponentially more frequent advances in non-computer sciences like nanotechnology, biotechnology, and materials science.
According to science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein, " a handy short definition of almost all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world, past and present, and on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method.
According to The Star Trek Encyclopedia, the registry number " NCC-1701 " was devised by Matt Jefferies, art director of the first Star Trek series, inspired by an old science fiction cover that Gene Roddenberry liked, with a starship flying through space.
According to Giorgio de Santillana, professor of the history of science at MIT, and student of mythology, the sampo and the world pillar both refer to the precession of the equinox.
According to Newton himself and other historians of science, his Principia's first law of motion was the same as Aristotle's counterfactual principle of interminable locomotion in a void stated in Physics 4. 8. 215a19 – 22 and was also endorsed by ancient Greek atomists and others.
According to Jensen, the book was " a patent example " of the bias that political ideology imposes upon science — the very thing that Gould sought to portray in the book.
According to the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Solovyov thought, “ Although empiricism and rationalism (= idealism ) rest on false principles, their respective objective contents, external experience, qua the foundation of natural science, and logical thought, qua the foundation of pure philosophy, are to be synthesized or encompassed along with mystical knowledge in ' integral knowledge ,' what Solovyov terms ' theosophy.
According to Blavatsky Occult science provides a description of reality not only at a physical level but also on a metaphysical one.
According to ScienceWatch, UVic is nationally ranked first in geoscience, second in space science and education, and third in engineering and mathematics for the period of 2000 – 2004.
According and technology
According to Blair ( 1997 ) British Steel faced serious problems at the time of its formation, including obsolescent plants ; plants operating under capacity and thus at low efficiency ; outdated technology ; price controls that reduced marketing flexibility ; soaring coal and oil costs ; lack of capital investment funds ; and increasing competition on the world market.
According to its website, the US National Security Agency ( NSA ) is " a high technology organization ... on the frontiers of communications and data processing ".
According to Myricom, 141 ( 28. 2 %) of the June 2005 TOP500 supercomputers used Myrinet technology.
According to the CIA World Factbook, private telephone companies " offer service in most major cities " via wireless technology, charging " the lowest international rates on the continent ",
According to the BMDO, the research on neutral particle beam accelerators, which was originally funded by the SDIO, could eventually be used to reduce the half-life of nuclear waste products using accelerator-driven transmutation technology.
According to the official linguistic policy of Tanzania, as announced in 1984, Swahili is the language of the social and political sphere as well as primary and adult education, whereas English is the language of secondary education, universities, technology, and higher courts.
According to Technorati, NewScientist. com is the 14th in the list of most-linked-to news organisations and the only science and technology specialist in the top 100.
According to this book at the time of the outbreak of the Crimean War many English industrialists and inventors became interested in military technology and Bessemer himself developed a method for grooving artillery projectiles so that they could spin without the use of rifling in the bore of the gun.
According to the historian of technology Lynn White, these conical and pyramidal designs, much more elaborate than early artistic jumps with rigid parasols in Asia, mark the origin of " the parachute as we know it ".
According to the Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries ( EJISDC ), the information and communications technology ( ICT ) sector had a 1. 1-1. 3 % share of GDP in 2002.
According to the Prose Edda, these warriors settled in northern Europe, where they were accepted as divine kings because of their superior culture and technology.
According to a report from the United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission, " Israel ranks second only to Russia as a weapons system provider to China and as a conduit for sophisticated military technology, followed by France and Germany.
According to Charlie Wilson's reference, Israel proliferated the sensitive and advance weapon technology to Pakistan, while reverse engineered the Soviet weapons after Israel had confiscated from PLO during the Lebanon war, and channeled these weapons to Mujahedin.
According to this definition, " state of the art " is the process with which a new unique idea is incorporated in any field of technology, literature and architecture.
According to Richard Arnold, NCR Vice President, Retail Industry Marketing, " Experticity's innovative live video technology paired with flexible and robust self-service kiosks from NCR provides retailers with a way to redefine the in-store experience for their customers, while also improving business efficiencies by optimizing staffing resources.
According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values ; promote solidarity amongst member states ; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas ; uphold international peace and security ; and advance education, particularly in the fields of science and technology.
According to Richard Rhodes the plans for the atomic bomb, hundreds of tons of nuclear weapons materials, strategic intelligence reports, and the plans for much of the most advanced aviation, electronic, and heavy industrial technology was transferred through Gore Field and East Base in sealed diplomatic containers.
According to the ' Patterns 3 ' report by Universities UK, " The Russell Group and the 1994 Group share many features, but are distinguished chiefly by the fact that most members of the Russell Group have medical schools, and an emphasis on science and technology.
According to an Environmental Research Letters report published in September 2008, " Total power used by information technology equipment in data centers represented about 0. 5 % of world electricity consumption in 2005.
According to economic studies on swinging, the information and communications technology revolution, together with improvements in medicine, has been effective in reducing some of the costs of swinging and hence in increasing the number of swingers.
According to the fictional storyline of the Star Trek universe, the Bajorans are an ancient species who developed advanced technology prior to the evolution of humanity on Earth.
According to their applications and technology available, antennas generally fall in one of two categories:
According to Dr. Maurice Albertson and Audrey Faulkner, appropriate hard technology is “ engineering techniques, physical structures, and machinery that meet a need defined by a community, and utilize the material at hand or readily available.