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Andronikos III Palaiologos, Latinized as Andronicus III Palaeologus (; 25 March 1297 – 15 June 1341 ) was Byzantine emperor from 1328 to 1341, after being rival emperor since 1321.
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Andronikos and III
The elder Andronikos disowned his grandson, whereupon Andronikos III fled the capital and rallied his supporters around him in Thrace.
Effective administrative authority during the reign of Andronikos III was wielded by his megas domestikos John Kantakouzenos, while the Emperor enjoyed himself hunting or waging war.
The subsequent years witnessed the gradual extinction of Byzantine rule in Asia Minor, as Orhan of the Ottoman Turks, who had already defeated Andronikos III at Pelekanos in 1329, took Nicaea in 1331 and Nicomedia in 1337.
Earlier Andronikos III had effected the recovery of the islands of Lesbos and Chios from Martino Zaccaria in 1329 ( although the island remained under Benedetto III Zaccaria until 1330 ) and of Phocaea in 1334 from the last Genoese governor Domenico Cattaneo.
Despite these troubles Andronikos III secured the extension of Byzantine control over Thessaly in 1333 and Epirus in 1337, by taking advantage of succession crises in these principalities.
Andronikos III reorganized the Byzantine navy ( consisted of 10 ships by 1332 ) and reformed the judicial system by forming a panel of four universal judges whom he designated " Universal Justices of the Romans ".
The Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta, who visited Constantinople towards the end of 1332, mentions in his memoirs having met Andronikos III.
In the summer of 1329, Andronikos III launched a relief attempt which culminated in a defeat at the Battle of Pelekanon on 10 June and in 1331, the city fell.
Not wishing to see Nicomedia or the other few remaining forts in Asia Minor suffer the same fate, Andronikos III sought to pay off the Ottomans with tribute — the Ottomans did not stop at this and seized Nicomedia as well in 1337.
Andronikos III was first married, in 1318, with Irene of Brunswick, daughter of Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg ; she died in 1324.
Andronikos and Palaiologos
* Eirene Angelina, who married ( 1 ) Andronikos Kontostephanos, and ( 2 ) Alexios Palaiologos, by whom she was the grandmother of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos.
The murder, and the general dissolute behaviour of Andronikos and his coterie, mostly the young scions of the Empire's great aristocratic clans, resulted in a deep rift in the relations between him and his grandfather, Andronikos II Palaiologos.
Andronikos II Palaiologos () ( 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332 ), Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 1282 to 1328.
Andronikos II Palaiologos sought to resolve some of the problems facing the Byzantine Empire through diplomacy.
Andronikos II also attempted to marry off his son and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos to the Latin Empress Catherine I of Courtenay, thus seeking to eliminate Western agitation for a restoration of the Latin Empire.
The dissolute behavior of Michael IX's son Andronikos III Palaiologos led to a rift in the family, and after Michael IX's death in 1320, Andronikos II disowned his grandson, prompting a civil war that raged, with interruptions, until 1328.
Andronikos and Andronicus
Andronikos I Komnenos ( or Andronicus I Comnenus, ; c. 1118 – September 12, 1185 ) was Byzantine Emperor from 1183 to 1185 ).
Andronicus or Andronikos is a classical Greek name ( Ανδρόνικος ), from the Gr. words " andras ", ( Gr. άνδρας ), i. e. man and " Nike " ( Gr. Νίκη ), i. e. victory.
Jonathan Bate speculates that the name Andronicus could have come from Andronikos V Palaiologos, co-emperor of Byzantium from 1403 – 1407, but as it is unknown how Shakespeare could have been familiar with these individuals, and it is thought more likely that he took the name from the story " Andronicus and the lion " in Antonio de Guevara's Epistolas familiares.
Andronikos IV Palaiologos ( or Andronicus IV Palaeologus ) ( Greek: Ανδρόνικος Δ ' Παλαιολόγος, Andronikos IV Paleologos ) ( 2 April 1348 – 28 June 1385 ) was Byzantine Emperor from 1376 to 1379.
Emperor Andronikos III ( Andronicus III ) purportedly gave his illegitimate daughter in marriage to Öz Beg but relations turned sour at the end of Andonicus's reign, and the Mongols mounted raids on Thrace between 1320 to 1324 until the Byzantine port of Vicina Macaria was occupied by the Mongols.