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Aristotle and says
In his study Samuel Johnson, Joseph Wood Krutch takes this line when he says that what Aristotle really means by his theory of catharsis is that our evil passions may be so purged by the dramatic ritual that it is `` less likely that we shall indulge them through our own acts ''.
The Italian poet Dante says of Aristotle in the first circles of hell,
For example, to cite Cynthia Freeland's catalogue: " Aristotle says that the courage of a man lies in commanding, a woman's lies in obeying ; that " matter yearns for form, as the female for the male and the ugly for the beautiful ;" that women have fewer teeth than men ; that a female is an incomplete male or " as it were, a deformity ": which contributes only matter and not form to the generation of offspring ; that in general " a woman is perhaps an inferior being "; that female characters in a tragedy will be inappropriate if they are too brave or too clever "( Freeland 1994: 145-46 )
They are not further identifiable from what Aristotle says but some pulmones appear in Pliny as a class of insensate sea animal ; specifically the halipleumon (" salt-water lung ").
In the first sentence of The Art of Rhetoric, Aristotle says that " rhetoric is the counterpart the antistrophe of dialectic.
For Plato and Aristotle, dialectic involves persuasion, so when Aristotle says that rhetoric is the antistrophe of dialectic, he means that rhetoric as he uses the term has a domain or scope of application that is parallel to but different from the domain or scope of application of dialectic.
Aristotle also says rhetoric is concerned with judgment because the audience judges the rhetor's ethos.
In Nicomachean Ethics ( Book 1 Chapter 5 ) Aristotle says that identifying the good with pleasure is to prefer a life suitable for beasts.
Aristotle ( peri ouravou, i. 9, 15 ) says: " The period which includes the whole time of one's life is called the aeon of each one.
* Although Aristotle says that catharsis ( purgation of emotion ) should be the goal of tragedy, this is only an ideal.
A plot must have, Aristotle says, a beginning, a middle, and an end, and the events of the plot must causally relate to one another as being either necessary or probable.
Furthermore, Aristotle says that a soul is related to its body as form to matter.
Moreover, Aristotle says that a body that has lost its soul is no longer potentially alive.
When Aristotle says that the body is matter for a living thing, he may be using the word " body " to refer to the matter that makes up the fully organized body, rather than the fully organized body itself.
Aristotle says that the intellect ( nous ), the ability to think, has no bodily organ ( in contrast with other psychological abilities, such as sense-perception and imagination ).
51 ), and Aristotle says that it was a matter of dispute ( Metaph.
In his Nicomachean Ethics, (§ 21 ; 1095a15 – 22 ) Aristotle says that everyone agrees that eudaimonia is the highest good for human beings, but that there is substantial disagreement on what sort of life counts as doing and living well ; i. e. eudaimon:
Aristotle says that the eudaimon life is one of “ virtuous activity in accordance with reason ”.
In his Nicomachean Ethics, ( 1095a15 – 22 ) Aristotle says that eudaimonia means ’ doing and living well ’.
He also says that they possessed a portrait of Christ, a painting they claimed had been made by Pilate during his lifetime, which they honoured along with images of Plato, Pythagoras and Aristotle " in the manner of the Gentiles ".
" Hence, the sentence Aristotle was Greek says only that that person was Greek.
Pliny says he was the grandson of Aristotle by his daughter Pythias, but this is not confirmed by any other ancient writer ; and according to the Suda, he was the son of Cretoxena, the sister of the physician Medius, and Cleombrotus.
Aristotle adds another qualification to that of being virtuous but not entirely good when he says, “ He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous .” He goes on to give examples such as Oedipus and Thyestes .”

Aristotle and on
Aristotle also tended to stratify all aspects of human nature and activity into levels of excellence and, like Plato, he put the pure and unimpassioned intellect on the top level.
Plato and Aristotle agree on some vital literary issues.
The first Greek Christians to comment extensively on Aristotle were John Philoponus, Elias, and David in the sixth century, and Stephen of Alexandria in the early seventh century.
Averroes, Avicenna and Alpharabius, who wrote on Aristotle in great depth, also influenced Thomas Aquinas and other Western Christian scholastic philosophers.
Ayn Rand accredited Aristotle as " the greatest philosopher in history " and cited him as a major influence on her thinking.
The secondary literature on Aristotle is vast.
Essays on Plato and Aristotle, Oxford University Press, USA.
Aristotle on Substance: The Paradox of Unity.
Articles on Aristotle Vol 1.
* Scholarly surveys of focused topics from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: articles on Aristotle, Aristotle in the Renaissance, Biology, Causality, Commentators on Aristotle, Ethics, Logic, Mathematics, Metaphysics, Natural philosophy, Non-contradiction, Political theory, Psychology, Rhetoric
Category: Commentators on Aristotle
Albertus was the first to comment on virtually all of the writings of Aristotle, thus making them accessible to wider academic debate.
The study of Aristotle brought him to study and comment on the teachings of Muslim academics, notably Avicenna and Averroes, and this would bring him in the heart of academic debate.
Two aspects of this attitude deserve to be mentioned: 1 ) he did not only study science from books, as other academics did in his day, but actually observed and experimented with nature ( the rumours starting by those who did not understand this are probably at the source of Albert's supposed connections with alchemy and witchcraft ), 2 ) he took from Aristotle the view that scientific method had to be appropriate to the objects of the scientific discipline at hand ( in discussions with Roger Bacon, who, like many 20th century academics, thought that all science should be based on mathematics ).
On the subject of alchemy and chemistry, many treatises relating to Alchemy have been attributed to him, though in his authentic writings he had little to say on the subject, and then mostly through commentary on Aristotle.
Category: Latin commentators on Aristotle
The press was started by Aldus based on his love of classics, and at first printed new copies of Plato, Aristotle, and other Greek and Latin classics.

Aristotle and subject
Aristotle not only studied almost every subject possible at the time, but made significant contributions to most of them.
Aristotle knew of this tradition when he began his Metaphysics, and had already drawn his own conclusion, which he presented under the guise of asking what being is :" And indeed the question which was raised of old is raised now and always, and is always the subject of doubt, viz., what being is, is just the question, what is substance?
Aristotle moves from this unqualified discussion of justice to a qualified view of political justice, by which he means something close to the subject of modern jurisprudence.
However, Aristotle himself did not call the subject of these books " Metaphysics ": he referred to it as " first philosophy.
In his Categories, Aristotle identifies ten possible kinds of thing that can be the subject or the predicate of a proposition.
Aristotle and Quintilian discussed oratory, and the subject, with definitive rules and models, was emphasised as a part of a liberal arts education during the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Aristotle dealt with the unity of action in some detail, under the general subject of " definition of tragedy ", where he wrote:
Aristotle recognised four kinds of quantified sentences, each of which contain a subject and a predicate:
Aristotle, who had been taught by Plato, denied that women were slaves or subject to property, arguing that " nature has distinguished between the female and the slave ", but he considered wives to be " bought ".
The term is considered philosophically useful, however, as what came to be known as the Athenian school ( composed of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle ) signaled a profound shift in the subject matter and methods of philosophy ; Friedrich Nietzsche's thesis that this profound shift began with Plato rather than with Socrates ( hence his nomenclature of " pre-Platonic philosophy ") was not sufficient to prevent the rise and perpetuation of the phrase " pre-Socratic philosophy.
Aristotle has much to say against the Xenocratean interpretation of the theory, and in particular points out that, if the ideal numbers are made up of arithmetical units, they not only cease to be principles, but also become subject to arithmetical operations.
According to John of Salisbury, Bernard composed a prose treatise De expositione Porphyrii, a metrical treatise on the same subject, a moral poem on education, and probably a fourth work in which he sought to reconcile Plato with Aristotle.
The question of ownership reaches back to the ancient philosophers, Plato and Aristotle, who held different opinions on the subject.
Impassibility in the Western tradition traces back to ancient Greek philosophers like Aristotle and Plato, who first proposed the idea of God as a perfect, omniscient, timeless, and unchanging being not subject to human emotion ( which represents change and imperfection ).
Aristotle states that one judgment is false when another is true ; the later writers and Kant state that a judgment is in itself and absolutely false, because the predicate contradicts the subject.
Aristotle defines it as " a change by which the action veers round to its opposite, subject always to our rule of probability or necessity.
The logic of basho is a non-dualistic ' concrete ' logic, meant to overcome the inadequacy of the subject-object distinction essential to the subject logic of Aristotle and the predicate logic of Kant, through the affirmation of what he calls the ' absolutely contradictory self-identity ', a dynamic tension of opposites that, unlike the dialectical logic of Hegel, does not resolve in a synthesis, but rather defines its proper subject by maintaining the tension between affirmation and negation as opposite poles or perspectives.
The usual way of connecting the subject and predicate of a categorical sentence as Aristotle does in On Interpretation is by using a linking verb e. g. P is S. However, in the Prior Analytics Aristotle rejects the usual form in favor of three of his inventions: 1 ) P belongs to S, 2 ) P is predicated of S and 3 ) P is said of S. Aristotle does not explain why he introduces these innovative expressions but scholars conjecture that the reason may have been that it facilitates the use of letters instead of terms avoiding the ambiguity that results in Greek when letters are used with the linking verb.
The subject ( abbreviated or ) is one of the two main constituents of a clause, according to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle and that is associated with phrase structure grammars ; the other constituent is the predicate.

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