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collaborative and filtering
* Netflix Prize, an open competition for the best collaborative filtering algorithm
Clay Shirky traces the origin of the term " social software " to Eric Drexler's 1987 discussion of " hypertext publishing systems " like the subsequent World Wide Web, and how systems of this kind could support software for public critical discussion, collaborative development, group commitment, and collaborative filtering of content based on voting and rating.
* GraphLab GraphLab collaborative filtering library, large scale parallel implementation of matrix decomposition methods ( in C ++) for multicore.
In general, collaborative filtering is the process of filtering for information or patterns using techniques involving collaboration among multiple agents, viewpoints, data sources, etc.
Applications of collaborative filtering typically involve very large data sets.
The remainder of this discussion focuses on collaborative filtering for user data, although some of the methods and approaches may apply to the other major applications as well.
In the newer, narrower sense, collaborative filtering is a method of making automatic predictions ( filtering ) about the interests of a user by collecting preferences or taste information from many users ( collaborating ).
The underlying assumption of the collaborative filtering approach is that if a person A has the same opinion as a person B on an issue, A is more likely to have B's opinion on a different issue x than to have the opinion on x of a person chosen randomly.
For example, a collaborative filtering recommendation system for television tastes could make predictions about which television show a user should like given a partial list of that user's tastes ( likes or dislikes ).
One of the techniques used for dealing with this problem is called collaborative filtering.
The motivation for collaborative filtering comes from the idea that people often get the best recommendation from someone with similar taste.
Typically, the workflow of a collaborative filtering system is:
A key problem of collaborative filtering is how to combine and weight the preferences of user neighbors.
This falls under the category of user-based collaborative filtering.
Alternatively, item-based collaborative filtering invented by Amazon. com ( users who bought x also bought y ), proceeds in an item-centric manner:
See, for example, the Slope One item-based collaborative filtering family.
Another form of collaborative filtering can be based on implicit observations of normal user behavior ( as opposed to the artificial behavior imposed by a rating task ).
Services like Reddit, YouTube, and Last. fm are typical example of collaborative filtering based media.
One scenario of collaborative filtering application is to recommend interesting or popular information as judged by the community.
Another aspect of collaborative filtering system can make more personalized recommendation by analyzing information from your past activity or the history of other users of similar taste.
A collaborative filtering system doesn't automatically match content to one's preferences.
As in the personalized recommendation scenario, new user or new item can always cause a problem, as there will be insufficient data for the collaborative filtering to work.

collaborative and methods
Most attorneys who practice collaborative divorce claim that it can be more cost-effective than other divorce methods, e. g., going to court.
Most recent developments in CSCL have been called E-Learning 2. 0, but the concept of collaborative or group learning whereby instructional methods are designed to encourage or require students to work together on learning tasks has existed much longer.
OpenDoc was one of Apple's earliest experiments with open standards and collaborative development methods with other companies.
UWA has formal agreements with 44 international institutions, promoting staff and student exchanges, collaborative research and exchange of teaching materials and methods.
These methods specifically aim to increase the success of teams as they engage in collaborative problem solving.
Additionally, the methods used by the H. 261 development committee to collaboratively develop the standard have remained the basic operating process for subsequent standardization work in the field ( see S. Okubo, " Reference model methodology-A tool for the collaborative creation of video coding standards ", Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.
Today instruction methods have changed drastically from the mostly one-directional teacher-student model, to a more collaborative approach where the students themselves feel empowered.
This mission is executed through collaborative partnerships with research centers, organizations, and individuals around the world, and through a “ mixed methods ” approach that combines technical analysis with intensive field research, qualitative social science, and legal and policy analysis methods.
The exploration of decomposition methods has continued in the last dozen years with the development and comparison of a number of approaches, classified variously as hierarchic and non-hierarchic, or collaborative and non-collaborative.
Several studies empirically compare the performance of the hybrid with the pure collaborative and content-based methods and demonstrate that the hybrid methods can provide more accurate
Students earning a community psychology degree complete courses that focus on: history and concepts of the field, human diversity and cultural competence, public health, community research methods and statistics, collaborative work in communities, organizational and community development and consultation, prevention and intervention, program evaluation, and grantwriting.
To support this community, SCEC engages in information technology research that will revolutionize our methods of doing collaborative research and distributing research products on-line.
Similarly, collaborative methods of execution and expertise drawn from outside the art world are often employed in activist art so as to attain its goals for community and public participation.
Integrated Project Delivery offers a new delivery method to remove considerable waste from the construction process while improving quality and a return to more collaborative methods from the past.
This approach is also labeled " collaborative autobiography " ( Allen-Collinson & Hockey, 2001 ; Lapadat, 2009 ), and has been used in teaching qualitative research methods to university students.
The Socialist Unity Network therefore believes that, in the interests of building resistance and striving to create the conditions in which a socialist alternative to New Labour can emerge, it is necessary to strive to develop collaborative methods of working as widely as possible.
The U. S. Government Open Code Collaborative or Government Open Code Collaborative Repository was an initiative for best practice exchange among government agencies in the United States employing free software, open source, share alike and other methods of solving software-related problems in an open collaborative way.
* Crowdsourcing Track-Goal: to provide a collaborative venue for exploring crowdsourcing methods both for evaluating search and for performing search tasks.
The methods used by commercial collaborative writers vary tremendously.

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