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As far as atoms and their electron shells were concerned, not only did this yield a better overall description, i. e. the atomic orbital model, but it also provided a new theoretical basis for chemistry
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far and atoms
Hence it is difficult to conceive of a packing of the atoms in this material in which the oxygen atoms are far from geometrical equivalence.
Because electrical forces ( the charge-excess ) are far more powerful than gravitation, the surface hydrogen atoms would shoot away from the sphere.
Specifically, after acknowledging the various popular theories in vogue at the time, of how atoms were reasoned to attach to each other, i. e. " hooked atoms ", " glued together by rest ", or " stuck together by conspiring motions ", Newton states that he would rather infer from their cohesion, that " particles attract one another by some force, which in immediate contact is exceedingly strong, at small distances performs the chemical operations, and reaches not far from the particles with any sensible effect.
Notice that alone the number has 10 billion zeros when written down in decimal notation, and is already by far larger than the number of atoms in the observable universe.
By recording full sets of reflections at three different wavelengths ( far below, far above and in the middle of the absorption edge ) one can solve for the substructure of the anomalously diffracting atoms and thence the structure of the whole molecule.
However, a study of Dalton's own laboratory notebooks, discovered in the rooms of the Lit & Phil, concluded that so far from Dalton being led by his search for an explanation of the law of multiple proportions to the idea that chemical combination consists in the interaction of atoms of definite and characteristic weight, the idea of atoms arose in his mind as a purely physical concept, forced upon him by study of the physical properties of the atmosphere and other gases.
The low-energy antihydrogen atoms synthesized so far have had a relatively high temperature ( a few thousand kelvin ), thus hitting the walls of the experimental apparatus as a consequence and annihilating.
Today the value of N < sub > A </ sub > can be measured at very high accuracy by taking an extremely pure crystal ( in practice, often silicon ), measuring how far apart the atoms are spaced using X-ray diffraction or another method, and accurately measuring the density of the crystal.
Details of nuclear weapon design also affect neutron emission: the gun-type assembly Hiroshima bomb leaked far more neutrons than the implosion type 21 kt Nagasaki bomb because the light hydrogen nuclei ( protons ) predominating in the exploded TNT molecules ( surrounding the core of the Nagasaki bomb ) slowed down neutrons very efficiently while the heavier iron atoms in the steel nose forging of the Hiroshima bomb scattered neutrons without absorbing much neutron energy.
But if the atoms are far apart, any signal cannot reach the other atoms in time, and they might end up absorbing the same photon anyway and dissipating the energy to the environment.
The above three paragraphs rationalise, albeit very generally, the reactions of some common species, particularly atoms, but chemists have so far been unable to jump from such general considerations to quantitative models of reactivity.
This is very useful when teaching about a topic that is difficult to otherwise see, for example, atomic structure, because atoms are far too small to be studied easily without expensive and difficult to use scientific equipment.
The energy required to break a single bond is far less than that required to break all the bonds on an entire plane of atoms at once.
* Hyperpolarization ( physics ) is the selective polarization of nuclear spin in atoms far beyond normal thermal equilibrium
For all values of n relevant to counting the running times of algorithms implemented in practice ( i. e., n ≤ 2 < sup > 65536 </ sup >, which is far more than the atoms in the known universe ), the iterated logarithm with base 2 has a value no more than 5.
And even if these proposed experiments were successful, they would only trap several antihydrogen atoms for research purposes, far too few for weapons or spacecraft propulsion.
It also greatly reduces conduction, as there are far fewer collisions between adjacent gas molecules ( or between gas molecules and atoms of the core material ).
For instance, to measure temperatures in the nanokelvin range ( billionths of a kelvin ), scientists using optical lattice laser equipment to adiabatically cool atoms, turn off the entrapment lasers and simply measure how far the atoms drift over time to measure their temperature.
far and their
They, and the two large fans which I could dimly see as daylight filtered through their vents, down at the far end of the hall, could be turned on by a master switch situated inside the office.
They squatted on their heels with their heads bent far forward, their eyes only a few inches from the ground.
they are the most valuable of commodities -- and the most salable, for their demand far exceeds supply.
Such characters, with their low existence and often low morality, produce humorous effects in his novels and tales, as they did in the writing of Longstreet and Hooper and Harris, but it need not be added that he gives them far subtler and more intricate functions than they had in the earlier writers ; ;
There is, of course, nothing new about dystopias, for they belong to a literary tradition which, including also the closely related satiric utopias, stretches from at least as far back as the eighteenth century and Swift's Gulliver's Travels to the twentieth century and Zamiatin's We, Capek's War With The Newts, Huxley's Brave New World, E. M. Forster's `` The Machine Stops '', C. S. Lewis's That Hideous Strength, and Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, and which in science fiction is represented before the present deluge as early as Wells's trilogy, The Time Machine, `` A Story Of The Days To Come '', and When The Sleeper Wakes, and as recently as Jack Williamson's `` With Folded Hands '' ( 1947 ), the classic story of men replaced by their own robots.
That fact is very clearly illustrated in the case of the many present-day intellectuals who were Communists or near-Communists in their youth and are now so extremely conservative ( or reactionary, as many would say ) that they can define no important political conviction that does not seem so far from even a centrist position as to make the distinction between Mr. Nixon and Mr. Khrushchev for them hardly worth noting.
These biographical analogies are obvious, and far too much time has been spent speculating on their possible implications.
Contrarily, Republican `` volunteers '' go their separate ways, and thus far have given no indication that they'd be willing to join forces under a single directorate, except in the most loose-knit fashion.
and it is still very far from certain how valid the party's claim is that in `` a growing number of kolkhozes '' the peasants are finding it more profitable, to surrender their private plots to the kolkhoz and to let the latter be turned into something increasingly like a state farm.
Though far from completion, these studies indicated beyond a doubt that savings would result which would be of unprecedented benefit to the railroads concerned, their investors, their customers, their users, and to the public at large.
The outlook for entertainment electronics in 1961 is certainly far from clear at present, but recent surveys have shown a desire on the part of consumers to step up their buying plans for durable goods.
The host of novel applications of electronics to medical problems is far more thrilling because of their implication in matters concerning our health and vitality.
This would, naturally, lengthen their courses far beyond the largely esthetic demands of interior designer's training.
I fought like a tigress but by the time I appealed my case to the Supreme Court ( 1937 ), Mr. Roosevelt and his `` henchmen '' had done their `` dirty work '' all too well, even going so far as to attempt to `` pack '' the highest tribunal in the land in order to defeat little me.
The adherence of many in the population to the Indian background in their pedigree, and emphasis upon the fact that their ancestors had never been slaves, becomes of prime interest in determining how far these elements promote the self-image of the intermediate status of the group in society.
Since they are all either rented or borrowed, the requested dates for their use have to be far in advance.
And perhaps an observer of the vases will not go too far in deducing that the outlook of their makers and users was basically stable and secure.
far and electron
The electron is by far the least massive of these particles at, with a negative electrical charge and a size that is too small to be measured using available techniques.
In order to gain higher resolution, the use of an electron beam with a far smaller wavelength is used in electron microscopes.
If electrons ' move ' about the electron cloud in strict paths the same way planets orbit the sun, then electrons would be required to do so at speeds which far exceed the speed of light.
The farther the electron jumps the shorter the wavelength of the photon emitted, meaning they emit different colors based on how far they jump.
Here " immediately " means that the final electron position is far from the surface on the atomic scale but still close to the solid on the macroscopic scale.
Complete removal of an electron from an atom can be a form of ionization, which is effectively moving the electron out to an orbital with an infinite principal quantum number, in effect so far away so as to have practically no more effect on the remaining atom ( ion ).
One advantage of the double probe is that neither electrode is ever very far above floating, so the theoretical uncertainties at large electron currents are avoided.
While X-ray and electron beams are by far the most widely used sources for external beam radiotherapy, a small number of centers operate experimental and pilot programs employing heavier particle beams, particularly proton sources.
Scanning electron microscope images, such as that in the taxobox, are far more illuminating than those taken in transmitted light.
For most resists, it is difficult to go below 25 nm lines and spaces, and a limit of 20 nm lines and spaces has been found .< ref name =" liddle "> In actuality, though, the range of secondary electron scattering is quite far, sometimes exceeding 100 nm, but becoming very significant below 30 nm.
Electrons, within an electron shell around an atom, tend to distribute themselves as far apart from each other, within the given shell, as they can ( due to each one being negatively charged ).
An atom in a Rydberg state has a valence electron in a large orbit far from the ion core ; in such an orbit the outermost electron feels an almost hydrogenic, Coulomb potential, U < sub > C </ sub > from a compact ion core consisting of a nucleus with Z protons and the lower electron shells filled with Z-1 electrons.
This is especially troublesome in the setting of electron crystallography, where that radiation damage is focused on far fewer atoms.
The inelastic mean free path ( IMFP ) is an index of how far an electron can travel through a solid before losing energy.
So far ( 2009 ), there is only one reliable evidence ( through hyperfine interaction structure in electron paramagnetic resonance ) for isolated sulfur defects in diamond.
Also, image contrast of microstructures at relatively low magnifications, e. g., < 500X, is far better with the LOM than with the scanning electron microscope ( SEM ), while transmission electron microscopes ( TEM ) generally cannot be utilized at magnifications below about 2000 to 3000X.
In addition, MINOS looks for the appearance of electron neutrinos in the far detector, and will either measure or set a limit on the oscillation probability of muon neutrinos into electron neutrinos.