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Azapirones are a class of 5-HT < sub > 1A </ sub > receptor agonists.
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Azapirones and are
Azapirones are poorly but nonetheless appreciably absorbed and have a rapid onset of action, but have only very short half-lives ranging from 1 – 3 hours.
Azapirones and .
Azapirones have more tolerable adverse effects than many other available anxiolytics like the benzodiazepines.
are and class
Class 2, stations operating on clear channels are required to cease operation or operate under nighttime restrictions beginning either at local sunset ( for daytime class 2, stations ) or sunset at the location of the dominant class 1, station where located west of the class 2, station ( for limited-time class 2, stations ).
The same restrictions apply after local sunset in the case of class 3, stations operating on regional channels, which after that time are required to operate under nighttime restrictions in order to protect each other.
The class 1, stations on these clear channels are protected to their 0.1-mv./m. groundwave contours against daytime cochannel interference.
With respect to skywave service rendered at night, class 1, -- A stations are the only stations permitted to operate in the United States on clear channels specified for class 1, -- A operation, and so render skywave service free from cochannel interference whereever they may be received ; ;
class 1, -- B stations are protected at night to their 0.5-mv./m. 50-percent time skywave contours against cochannel interference.
Since the provision of skywave service requires adequate freedom from interference, only class 1, stations are capable of rendering skywave service.
With respect to other frequencies, these are designated as regional or local, and assigned for use by class 3, and class 4, stations, respectively, stations operating generally with lower power.
On the remainder of the clear channels, the dominant ( class 1 ) -- B stations are protected as described above, and the relatively small number of secondary ( class 2 ) ) stations permitted to operate on these channels at night are required to operate directionally and/or with reduced power so as to protect the class 1, stations.
Such additional daytime class 2, assignments are appropriate if optimum use is to be made of these frequencies, and the Commission has over the years made a large number of them.
The few cases of clear favoritism along social-class lines are as likely as not to involve representatives of the working class on the school board who favor some such practice as higher wages for janitors rather than pay increases for teachers, and such issues are not issues of educational policy.
However, there are relatively few such political constituencies, and, as has been pointed out, there is seldom a clear-cut distinction between the educational interests of one social class and those of another.
Like the other policy-making groups, these are middle class in their educational attitudes, and they attempt to act in the general public interest, as they see it.
Thus, during any given year ( A ) if the revenues from the residential service are $7,000,000, ( B ) if the operating expenses imputed to this class of service come to $5,000,000, and ( C ) if the net investment in ( or value of ) the plant and equipment deemed devoted to this service amounts to $30,000,000, the cost analyst will report that residential service, in the aggregate, has yielded a return of $2,000,000 or 6-2/3 per cent.
are and 5-HT
SSRIs are said to work by preventing the reuptake of serotonin ( also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT ) by the presynaptic neuron, thus maintaining higher levels of 5-HT in the synapse.
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors ( SNRIs ) are a newer form of antidepressants that work on both norepinephrine and 5-HT.
Both classes of these drugs are agonists at the 5-HT < sub > 2 </ sub > receptors ; this is thought to be the central component of their hallucinogenic properties.
Because of the possible role of serotonin in sleep patterns, a new generation of 5-HT < sub > 2 </ sub > antagonists are in current development as hypnotics.
Many monoamine neurotransmitters ; e. g., norepinephrine ( noradrenalin ), dopamine, and serotonin ( 5-HT ) are oxidizable.
They are also found in close association with serotonin ( 5-HT ) and neurons containing norepinephrine that are targeted by the currently used antidepressant drugs.
** 5-HT < sub > 3 </ sub > receptor antagonists are the primary drugs used to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
The leaves and stems are very hairy with non-stinging hairs and also bear many stinging hairs ( trichomes ), whose tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a needle that will inject several chemicals: acetylcholine, histamine, 5-HT ( serotonin ), moroidin, leukotrienes, and possibly formic acid.
In the case of NET and SERT one Na < sup >+</ sup > and one Cl < sup >-</ sup > ion are transported into the cell with one NE or 5-HT respectively.
Indirect α < sub > 1 </ sub >- adrenoceptor-mediated enhancement of 5-HT cell firing and direct blockade of inhibitory α < sub > 2 </ sub >- heteroreceptors located on 5-HT terminals are held responsible for the increase in extracellular 5-HT.
Serotonin binds a number of receptors, including the 5-HT < sub > 3 </ sub > receptors, which are ligand-gated ion channels that allow the passage of cations in order to depolarize the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron that they reside on.
For instance several excitatory ionotropic ligand-gated neurotransmitter receptors including glutamate receptors ( AMPA, NMDA, and kainate ), nicotinic acetylcholine ( nACh ), and serotonin ( 5-HT < sub > 3 </ sub >) receptors are nonselective cation channels that pass Na < sup >+</ sup > and K < sup >+</ sup > in nearly equal proportions, giving an equilibrium potential close to 0 mV.
All of these drugs exhibit inverse agonistic effects at the 5-HT < sub > 2A / 2C </ sub > receptors, meaning serotonin abnormalites are also involved in the complex constellation of neurologic factors predisposing one to the self reinforcing language-based psychological deficits found in all forms of psychosis.
Some of the enzymes of the pinealocytes include 5-HT N-acetyl transferase and 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase which are used to convert serotonin to melatonin.
The serotonin receptors, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptors ( GPCRs ) and ligand-gated ion channels ( LGICs ) found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
With the exception of the 5-HT < sub > 3 </ sub > receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel, all other serotonin receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that activate an intracellular second messenger cascade to produce an excitatory or inhibitory response.
While some of the listed properties such as 5-HT < sub > 2A </ sub > and D < sub > 2 </ sub > blockade may be useful in certain indications such as in the treatment of schizophrenia ( as with perospirone and tiospirone ), all of them except 5-HT < sub > 1A </ sub > agonism are generally undesirable in anxiolytics and only contribute to side effects.
Its effects are thought to come from its partial agonist activity at 5-HT < sub > 2A </ sub > serotonin receptors in the prefrontal cortex.
are and <
All 128 ASCII characters, including non-printable characters ( represented by their abbreviations ). The 95 ASCII graphic characters are numbered from 20 < sub > hexadecimal | hex </ sub > to 7E < sub > hexadecimal | hex </ sub > ( decimal 32 to 126 ).
When there are only two means to compare, the t-test and the ANOVA F-test are equivalent ; the relation between ANOVA and t is given by F = t < sup > 2 </ sup >.
The Arrhenius definition states that acids are substances which increase the concentration of hydronium ions ( H < sub > 3 </ sub > O < sup >+</ sup >) in solution.
The reason why pHs of acids are less than 7 is that the concentration of hydronium ions is greater than 10 < sup >− 7 </ sup > moles per liter.
In pure water the majority of molecules exist as H < sub > 2 </ sub > O, but a small number of molecules are constantly dissociating and re-associating.
The Brønsted-Lowry definition is the most widely used definition ; unless otherwise specified acid-base reactions are assumed to involve the transfer of a proton ( H < sup >+</ sup >) from an acid to a base.
Reactions of acids are often generalized in the form HA H < sup >+</ sup > + A < sup >−</ sup >, where HA represents the acid and A < sup >−</ sup > is the conjugate base.
The numerical value of K < sub > a </ sub > is equal to the concentration of the products divided by the concentration of the reactants, where the reactant is the acid ( HA ) and the products are the conjugate base and H < sup >+</ sup >.
The basic principles of general semantics, which include time-binding, are described in the publication < cite > Science and Sanity </ cite >, published in 1933.
Isotopes that are lighter than the stable < sup > 123 </ sup > Sb tend to decay by β < sup >+</ sup > decay, and those that are heavier tend to decay by β < sup >-</ sup > decay, with some exceptions.
As with most lanthanides and actinides, actinium exists in the oxidation state + 3, and the Ac < sup > 3 +</ sup > ions are colorless in solutions.
Only a limited number of actinium compounds are known including AcF < sub > 3 </ sub >, AcCl < sub > 3 </ sub >, AcBr < sub > 3 </ sub >, AcOF, AcOCl, AcOBr, Ac < sub > 2 </ sub > S < sub > 3 </ sub >, Ac < sub > 2 </ sub > O < sub > 3 </ sub > and AcPO < sub > 4 </ sub >.