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By the turn of the twentieth century it had begun to be displaced by the shorter and purely Arabic term Islam and by 1938, when Orientalist scholars completed The Encyclopaedia of Islam, seems to have virtually disappeared from the English language.
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By and turn
By allowing a new kind of equality among citizens this opened the way to democracy, which in turn called for a new means, chattel slavery, to at least partially equalise the availability of leisure between rich and poor.
By the turn of the century, cycling clubs flourished on both sides of the Atlantic, and touring and racing became widely popular.
By the turn of the 21st century, Battery Park City was mostly completed, with the exception of some ongoing construction on West Street.
By the turn of the 20th century, it had grown customary to abbreviate the name violoncello to ' cello, with the apostrophe indicating the six missing prefix letters.
By 1569, relations with the Habsburgs had deteriorated, and Elizabeth considered marriage to two French Valois princes in turn, first Henry, Duke of Anjou, and later, from 1572 to 1581, his brother Francis, Duke of Anjou, formerly Duke of Alençon.
* By the convolution theorem, Fourier transforms turn the complicated convolution operation into simple multiplication, which means that they provide an efficient way to compute convolution-based operations such as polynomial multiplication and multiplying large numbers.
By the turn of the 19th century they became new powers, having divided Poland between them, with Sweden and Turkey having experienced substantial territorial losses to Russia and Austria respectively as well as pauperisation.
By this time the manager is there, and expresses a strong desire to turn back-right at the moment that the Inner Station comes into view.
By the turn of the 20th century, the heyday of individualist anarchism had passed, although aspects of the individualist anarchist tradition were later revived with modifications by Murray Rothbard and his anarcho-capitalism in the mid-20th century, as a current of the broader libertarian movement.
By 1938, they had all become wealthy men, but their wealth was dependent on Hitler ’ s continuing goodwill and willingness to turn a blind eye to their corruption.
By the turn of the 19th century, the company had become the largest of the ‘’ hongs ’’ or foreign trading conglomerates with offices in all the important Chinese cities as well as Yokohama, Japan.
By the turn of 1992 they were top of the Second Division, and then suffered a dip in form before recovering to qualify for the playoffs, during which Dalglish led Blackburn into the new Premier League by beating Leicester City 1 – 0 in the Second Division Play-off final at Wembley.
By the turn from the 10th to the 11th century, the smaller burghs in the Parseta area were given up.
By the turn of the 19th century, the English word " anarchism " had lost its initial negative connotation.
By eliminating ρ and J, using Maxwell's equations, and manipulating using the theorems of vector calculus, this form of the equation can be used to derive the Maxwell stress tensor σ, in turn this can be combined with the Poynting vector S to obtain the electromagnetic stress-energy tensor T used in general relativity.
North Korean forces were soon defeated by September and driven northwards by United Nations forces led by the U. S. By October, the U. N. forces had retaken Seoul and captured Pyongyang, and it became Kim's turn to flee.
By the turn of the century physicists had also discovered three types of radiation emanating from atoms, which they named alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.
By 1970, Dot had become an all-country label and in 1974, Paramount sold all of its record holdings to ABC Records, which in turn was sold to MCA ( now Universal Music Group ) in 1979.
By the turn of the century, pop punk had been adopted by the mainstream, as bands such as Green Day and The Offspring brought the genre widespread popularity.
By the turn of the decade, the punk rock movement had split deeply along cultural and musical lines, leaving a variety of derivative scenes and forms.
By and twentieth
By the end of the twentieth century " Negro " had come to be considered inappropriate and was rarely used and perceived as a pejorative.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, Steiner's interests turned to explicitly spiritual areas of research.
By the late twentieth century, Chianti was often associated with basic Chianti sold in a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a fiasco.
By the early twentieth century, the word " fart " had come to be considered rather vulgar in most English-speaking cultures.
By the end of the twentieth century interest in hydraulic rams has revived, due to the needs of sustainable technology in developing countries, and energy conservation in developed ones.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, punch cards encoded data and directed mechanical processing.
By the twentieth century, the modern notion of science as a special brand of information about the world, practiced by a distinct group and pursued through a unique method, was essentially in place.
By the mid twentieth century the Crossbow Corps had become largely defunct, save for parading on state holidays ; but in 1956 the practice of training its members in crossbow shooting was revived, and a ' Crossbow Federation ' was formed to encourage competition in this art, so that the unit ( although still entirely ceremonial in nature ) now again has a very active existence.
By the turn of the twentieth century, a proportionately small yet socially significant cross-section of China's traditional elite ( i. e. landlords and bureaucrats ), found themselves increasingly skeptical of the efficacy and even the moral validity of Confucianism.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, the city's population had reached 85, 050 in, making it the most densely populated city in the Southern United States.
By the early twentieth century Sydney became home to one of the world's largest steel plants, fed by the numerous coal mines in the area under the ownership of the Dominion Coal Company.
By the end of the twentieth century, however, all of these rules had been abolished one by one, so that appointment is now a matter of status and prestige only, with no formal disadvantages.
By 1921 the registered population had slumped by almost 38, 000 ( approximately 14 %) in ten years to 228, 244, and the decline continued throughout the twentieth century.
By the end of the twentieth century, the replanted growth was considered mature enough to be commercially harvested.
By the early twentieth century, as the town's population continued to grow, the Florida East Coast Railroad constructed tracks en route to Miami bisecting Deerfield.
By the turn of the twentieth century, Riverdale Park comprised 60 dwellings, a Presbyterian church, a schoolhouse, and a railroad station.
By population, Egremont ranks twentieth out of the 32 cities and towns in Berkshire County, and 315th out of the 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts.
By the start of the twentieth century, more than five million pounds of tobacco were being sold annually in Kinston's warehouses.
By the early twentieth century the population had reached 513, and the Methodist and Baptist congregations had established churches.
By the twentieth century dairy farms were increasingly competitive, and by the 1950s many small farms had ceased operation.