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Calvinism became the theological system of the majority in Scotland ( see John Knox ), the Netherlands, with men such as William Ames, T J Frelinghuysen and Wilhelmus à Brakel and parts of Germany ( especially those adjacent to the Netherlands ) with the likes of Olevianus and his colleague Zacharias Ursinus.
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Calvinism and became
In 1536, with Protestantism in the ascendancy, John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, became the spiritual leader of the city.
Even the Geneva académie was eclipsed by universities in Leiden and Heidelberg, which became the new strongholds of Calvin's ideas, first identified as " Calvinism " by Joachim Westphal in 1552.
When the senior branch of the family died out in 1559, the Electorate passed to Frederick III of Simmern, a staunch Calvinist, and the Palatinate became one of the major centers of Calvinism in Europe, supporting Calvinist rebellions in both the Netherlands and France.
After the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572 this trait in him became the more pronounced, and he continued as the chief patron of English Puritans and a champion of international Calvinism.
Calvinism has been known at times for its simple, unadorned churches and lifestyles, as depicted in this painting by Emmanuel de Witte c. 1660Calvinism became the theological system of the majority in the Netherlands during the Dutch Revolt in the Eighty Years War.
The staple trade made Boston a centre of intellectual influence from the Continent, including the teachings of John Calvin that became known as Calvinism.
There, he became the principal champion of Swiss Calvinism, against the Lutherans as well as the Roman Catholics, and was appointed chaplain to Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, the Lord Protector.
The early Dutch followers of his teaching became known as Remonstrants after they issued a document containing five points of disagreement with mainstream Calvinism, entitled Remonstrantiæ ( 1610 ).
In 1524, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, arrived at Valenciennes, and — even when Henry II of France allied with him against the Protestants in 1552 — Valenciennes became ( c. 1560 ) an early center of Calvinism and in 1562 was location of the first act of resistance against persecution of Protestants in the Spanish Netherlands.
In 16th century the town also became one of the most notable centres of Calvinism in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, after Mikołaj " the Red " Radziwiłł founded a collegiate and a church there.
With the advance of Calvinism in 1535, it became a center for the Counter-Reformation and the bishop's see of Geneva was transferred here.
He was by training not a theologian but rather a classics scholar, and his theological approach became more or less irenic both toward Catholicism and toward Calvinism, which was followed by his disciples called Philippists.
By the adoption of the Formula of Concord their cause was ruined in all the territories which accepted it, although in some others it survived under the aspect of a modified Lutheranism, as in Nuremberg, or, as in Nassau, Hesse, Anhalt, and Bremen, where it became more or less definitely identified with Calvinism.
The book, attacked from the standpoint of high Calvinism, became the standard of a far-reaching movement in Scottish Presbyterianism.
On his return to his diocese, his zeal and eloquence were largely instrumental in withstanding the progress of Calvinism, and among others he converted Henry Sponde, who became bishop of Pamiers, and the Swiss general Sancy.
In second half of the 16th century the town became one of the most important centres of Calvinism in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
All churches in the Calvinist territories became Calvinist and most of the population in these territories converted to or were forced to convert to Calvinism.
Calvinism became the de facto state religion and political offices could only be occupied by Calvinists ( and in some cases, Jews ).
Calvinism and theological
Understanding Arminianism is aided by understanding the theological alternatives: Pelagianism, Semi-Pelagianism, and Calvinism.
Calvinism ( also called Reformed tradition, or the Reformed faith, and sometimes Reformed theology ) is a type of Protestant theological system and an alternative approach to the Christian life.
" Puritan theology " makes sense only as certain parts of Reformed theology, i. e. the legacy in theological terms of Calvinism, as it was expounded by Puritan preachers ( often known as lecturers ), and applied in the lives of Puritans.
Thanks to a theological pamphlet attributed to him, Middleton is thought by some to have been a strong believer in Calvinism, among the dominant strains in the theology of the English church of his time, which rigidly divides humanity into the damned and the elect, which focuses on human sinfulness and inadequacy more than in the other denominations of Christianity.
A theological debate has opposed Catholicism, both internally and to Calvinism, concerning the nature and exact role of the efficacious grace.
Lucaris pursued theological studies in Venice and Padua, Wittenberg and Geneva where he came under the influence of Calvinism and developed strong antipathy for Roman Catholicism.
This term is an integral part of John Calvin's theological framework known as Calvinism, which emphasizes the total depravity of man and the complete sovereignty of God.
Dave Hunt, Hal Lindsey, and Thomas Ice specifically criticize Christian Reconstructionism from a Christian viewpoint, disagreeing on theological grounds with its theocratic elements as well as its Calvinism and postmillennialism.
He also authored The Atonement in Christ ( 1879 ), in which he demonstrated what he believed were severe Biblical and theological problems with commonly held theories on the doctrine of the atonement such as the punishment view of Calvinism and the moral example view of Pierre Abélard, developing a strong moral government theology which was thoroughly Wesleyan and Arminian, heavily reliant on the work of Hugo Grotius.
Finally, the work serves as a critique of Calvinism, written from the perspective of an individual deeply familiar with the theological system.
The union is notable in that the Congregational and Presbyterian churches came from a strong theological tradition of Calvinism, while the Methodist tradition was Arminian.
The Synod of Dort tried to bring an end to an internal theological conflict within the Calvinist church between two tendencies of Calvinism the orthodox Gomarists or Contra-Remonstrants and the liberal Arminians or Remonstrants.
But Pierre Du Moulin ( Molinæus ) ( since 1621 professor of the rival theological school of Sedan ), Friedrich Spanheim ( 1600 – 1649, Professor in Leiden ), André Rivet ( 1572 – 1651, Professor in Leiden ), and the theologians of Geneva opposed it, as a departure from the orthodox faith and a compromise between Calvinism and Arminianism.
Generally speaking, the theological outlook of most ministers was largely accepting of liberal trends in Protestant doctrine and higher biblical criticism, although some pockets of conservative revivalistic pietism and confessionalist Calvinism could be found.
Calvinism and system
The system is often summarized in the Five Points of Calvinism and is best known for its doctrines of predestination and total depravity, stressing the total contingency of man's salvation upon the absolute sovereignty of God.
He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism.
The Institutes is a highly regarded secondary reference for the system of doctrine adopted by the Reformed churches, usually called Calvinism.
Taylor's modification of Calvinism not only drew their ire, but prompted many of them to declare that Taylor's system was not Calvinism at all, but Arminian and even Pelagian.
Besides opposing at all points the peculiar doctrines of Calvinism, Episcopius protested against the tendency of Calvinists to lay so much stress on abstract dogma, and argued that Christianity was practical rather than theoretical — not so much a system of intellectual belief as a moral power and that an orthodox faith did not necessarily imply the knowledge of and assent to a system of doctrine which included the whole range of Christian truth, but only the knowledge and acceptance of so much of Christianity as was necessary to effect a real change on the heart and life.
It was only in the 19th century that the expression Hyper-Calvinism came to be generally used to describe the same doctrinal system which some people in the 18th century called High Calvinism.
Hyper signifies above, and Hyper-Calvinists are so called, because their system is above genuine Calvinism.