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Cardinals and Ostia
The Dean of the College of Cardinals in addition to such a titular church also receives the titular bishopric of Ostia, the primary suburbicarian see.
The rule remains that, if the person elected pope is not yet a bishop, he is consecrated by the Dean of the College of Cardinals, the Cardinal bishop of Ostia.
* Angelo Sodano, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Albano, Dean of the College of Cardinals, former Cardinal Secretary of State
" Under Pope Clement VII ( 1523 – 34 ) he became Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and dean of the College of Cardinals, and on the death of Clement VII in 1534, was elected as Pope Paul III.
He was consecrated as bishop by Bartolomeo Pacca, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, with Pier Francesco Galleffi, Cardinal Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, and Tommasso Arezzo, Cardinal Bishop of Sabina, acting as co-consecrators.
* the Diocese of Ostia ( since 1150 the see of the Dean of the College of Cardinals )
The see of Ostia is conferred on the Dean of the College of Cardinals in addition to the see he already had.
The diocese of Ostiathe titular diocese of the Dean of the College of Cardinals — was merged with the diocese of Rome and was henceforth administered by the Roman vicar general.
He was appointed as Cardinal-Bishop of the suburbicarian diocese of Palestrina in 1986, and as Dean of the College of Cardinals had the additional title of Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, as the dean traditionally does, from 1993 to 2002 when he retired to move home to Benin ( He relinquished the title of the Ostia see when he retired .).
In the papal Mass a cardinal-bishop acted as assistant priest ; this honor fell on the most solemn occasions to the Cardinal-bishop of Ostia, the Dean of the College of Cardinals.
The Vicar General of Rome also serves the same role for the suburbicarian diocese of Ostia, the traditional see of the Dean of the College of Cardinals, since it was merged with the diocese of Rome.
He became Bishop of Massa in 1538, Archbishop of Tours in 1553, and Bishop of Cahors ; Archbishop of Benevento, and Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia and Velletri and Dean of the College of Cardinals in 1580.
Traglia was elected and confirmed as Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals on 24 March 1972, later ascending to Dean of the College of Cardinals and thus Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, while retaining his previous suburbicarian title, on 7 January 1974.
He became Cardinal Bishop of Porto-Santa Rufina in 1454, then Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia ( 1461 ) and Dean of the College of Cardinals ( November 1472 ).

Cardinals and afterwards
On returning to Florence in 1622, he entered the service of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, and went with him to Rome where Barberini became Dean of the College of Cardinals, afterwards accompanying the cardinal to Paris, Madrid, and back to Rome.
A desire to know more about humanism sent him to Rome, where in 1470 he was the intimate friend of Italian scholars and under the protection of Cardinals Bessarion and Francesco della Rovere ( general of the Franciscan order and afterwards Pope Sixtus IV ).

Cardinals and Pope
Under the 1587 decree of Pope Sixtus V, which fixed the maximum size of the College of Cardinals, there were 14 cardinal deacons.
For example, the broad, top-level overview of the general organization of the Catholic Church consists of the Pope, then the Cardinals, then the Archbishops, and so on.
Pope John Paul II abolished vote by acclamation and by selection by committee, and henceforth election will be by full vote by ballot of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
Though his absence from the 1958 conclave did not make him ineligible – under Canon Law any Catholic male may be elected – the College of Cardinals usually chose the new Pope from among themselves.
Category: Cardinals created by Pope Pius XII
There, at the suggestion of Jonathas, the Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Cosma e Damiano, who was a partisan of the Pierleoni family, the Cardinals unanimously elected as Pope the Cardinal-Priest of Sant ’ Anastasia, Theobaldo Boccapecci, who took the name Celestine II.
His successor was Giampietro Carafa, Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals Pope Paul IV ( 1555 – 59 ).
Category: Cardinals created by Pope John XXIII
After the death of Pope Innocent IX ( 1591 ), another stormy conclave ensued, where a determined minority of Italian Cardinals were unwilling to be dictated to by Philip II of Spain.
Pope Clement VIII participated personally in the final phases of the trial, inviting the Cardinals in charge of the case to proceed with the verdict.
Gregory succeeded Pope Clement IV in 1271 after the papal chair had been vacant for three years due to divisions among the Cardinals.
The College of Cardinals was equally split between French and Italian Cardinals who wanted a Pope from their country due to the ongoing political situation with Charles of Anjou, younger brother of King Louis IX of France, who had usurped the throne of Sicily by arms and perpetually intervened in the political affairs of the entire Italian peninsula.
Three days later, the Cardinals elected Pope Gregory X.
After his death the College of Cardinals was pressured by a Roman mob that broke into the voting chamber to force an Italian Pope into the papacy.
He was the last Pope to be elected from outside the College of Cardinals.
According to contemporary John Bargrave, in 1636 members of the Spanish faction of the College of Cardinals were so horrified by the conduct of Pope Urban VIII that they conspired to have him arrested and imprisoned ( or killed ) so that they could replace him with a new pope ; namely Laudivio Zacchia.
This time the Spanish party in the College of Cardinals did not go so far, but they still controlled a majority, and after a quick conclave they raised Facchinetti to the papal chair as Pope Innocent IX.
Pope Alexander VIII died in 1691 and the College of Cardinals assembled to hold a conclave.
In the capacity of papal legate he was sent to France in 1480, where he remained four years, and acquitted himself with such ability that he soon acquired a paramount influence in the College of Cardinals, an influence which increased rather than diminished during the pontificate of Pope Innocent VIII.
He was elected as Pope Julius II to the papal dignity by the near-unanimous vote of the cardinals ( indeed, the only three votes he did not receive were those of Georges D ' Amboise, supposedly his main opponent and the favourite of the French monarchy, and the votes of Cardinals Carafa and Casanova ) almost certainly by means of bribery.
Over 22, 000 electronic signatures, some of them anonymous, were collected on a web petition to ask the Bishops, Cardinals and the Pope to reconsider the new translation.
In Rome, the College of Cardinals uses smoke signals to indicate the selection of a new Pope.

Cardinals and Gregory
Gregory XIV created five Cardinals, among whom was his nephew Paolo Emilio Sfondrati, his Secretary of State.
* Cardinals created by Gregory XIV
* Cardinals created by Gregory XV
According to prior agreement, they agreed to retain all the cardinals that had been created by Gregory XII, thus satisfying the Correr clan, and appointed Gregory XII Bishop of Frascati, Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and perpetual legate at Ancona.
In a time of considerable centralisation of power, Gregory XIII abolished the Cardinals Consistories, replacing them with Colleges, and appointing specific tasks for these colleges to work on.
* Cardinals created by Gregory XIII
Between April 16 and July 29, 1229, Pope Gregory IX elevated Jacques to the College of Cardinals and transferred him to the suburbicarian see of Frascati.
Before deciding to elevate Archbishop Daniel DiNardo of Houston to the Sacred College of Cardinals in 2007, Pope Benedict XVI had reportedly considered Archbishop Gregory for that honor.
His sonnets were often satirical and anti-clerical, as when he defined the Cardinals as ' dog-robbers ', for example, or Pope Gregory XVI as someone who kept ' Rome as his personal inn '.

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