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Duesberg and states
" Duesberg elsewhere states that " the typical virus reproduces by entering a living cell and commandeering the cell's resources in order to make new virus particles, a process that ends with the disintegration of the dead cell ".

Duesberg and African
What Duesberg calls " the myth of an African AIDS epidemic ," among people " exists for several reasons, including:
According to Duesberg, common diseases are easily misdiagnosed as AIDS in Africa because " the diagnosis of African AIDS is arbitrary " and does not include HIV testing.
One of the reasons for using more HIV tests despite their expense is that, rather than overestimating AIDS as Duesberg suggests, the Bangui definition alone excluded nearly half of African AIDS patients.
Duesberg notes that diseases associated with AIDS differ between African and Western populations, concluding that the causes of immunodeficiency must be different.

Duesberg and AIDS
The Duesberg hypothesis is the claim, associated with University of California, Berkeley professor Peter Duesberg, that various non-infectious factors such as recreational and pharmaceutical drug use are the cause of AIDS, and that HIV ( human immunodeficiency virus ) is merely a harmless passenger virus.
The scientific consensus is that the Duesberg hypothesis is incorrect, and that HIV is the cause of AIDS.
Duesberg argues that there is a statistical correlation between trends in recreational drug use and trends in AIDS cases.
Moreover, in addition to recreational drugs, Duesberg argues that anti-HIV drugs such as zidovudine ( AZT ) can cause AIDS.
Duesberg argued in 1989 that a significant number of AIDS victims had died without proof of HIV infection.
Since AIDS is now defined partially by the presence of HIV, Duesberg claims it is impossible by definition to offer evidence that AIDS doesn't require HIV.
According to the Duesberg hypothesis, AIDS is not found in Africa.
Because reported AIDS cases in Africa and other parts of the developing world include a larger proportion of people who do not belong to Duesberg's preferred risk groups of drug addicts and male homosexuals, Duesberg writes on his website that " There are no risk groups in Africa, like drug addicts and homosexuals ," However, many studies have addressed the issue of risk groups in Africa and concluded that the risk of AIDS is not equally distributed.
The consensus in the scientific community is that the Duesberg hypothesis has been refuted by a large and growing mass of evidence showing that HIV causes AIDS, that the amount of virus in the blood correlates with disease progression, that a plausible mechanism for HIV's action has been proposed, and that anti-HIV medication decreases mortality and opportunistic infection in people with AIDS.
* the AIDS epidemic in Thailand cited by Duesberg as confirmation of his hypothesis is in fact evidence of the role of HIV in AIDS.
Duesberg claims as support for his idea that many drug-free HIV + people have not yet developed AIDS ; HIV / AIDS scientists note that many drug-free HIV + people have developed AIDS, and that, in the absence of medical treatment or rare genetic factors postulated to delay disease progression, it is very likely that nearly all HIV + people will eventually develop AIDS.

Duesberg and are
The most prominent supporters of this hypothesis are Duesberg himself, biochemist and vitamin proponent David Rasnick, and journalist Celia Farber.
Consistent with this hypothesis, studies that report the highest rates of PCP in Africa are those that use the most advanced diagnostic methods " Duesberg also claims that Kaposi's Sarcoma is " exclusively diagnosed in male homosexual risk groups using nitrite inhalants and other psychoactive drugs as aphrodisiacs ", but the cancer is fairly common among heterosexuals in some parts of Africa, and is found in heterosexuals in the United States as well.
Mullis has drawn controversy for his association with prominent AIDS denialist Peter Duesberg, claiming that AIDS is an arbitrary diagnosis only used when HIV antibodies are found in a patient's blood.

Duesberg and such
The advisory board of Alive & Well AIDS Alternatives includes many prominent AIDS denialists, such as Harvey Bialy, Peter Duesberg, Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, and David Rasnick.

Duesberg and from
Duesberg writes, " retroviruses do not kill cells because they depend on viable cells for the replication of their RNA from viral DNA integrated into cellular DNA.
Duesberg claims that the supposedly innocuous nature of all retroviruses is supported by what he considers to be their normal mode of proliferation: infection from mother to child in utero.

Duesberg and .
Duesberg has also argued that nitrite inhalants were the cause of the epidemic of Kaposi sarcoma ( KS ) in gay men.
* The need, according to Duesberg, of the CDC, the WHO, and other health organizations to justify their existences, resulting in their " manufacturing contagious plagues out of noninfectious medical conditions.
Peter Duesberg argues that retroviruses like HIV must be harmless to survive: they do not kill cells and they do not cause cancer, he maintains.
Duesberg also rejects the involvement of retroviruses and other viruses in cancer.
Duesberg rejects a role in cancer for numerous viruses, including leukemia viruses, Epstein-Barr Virus, Human Papilloma Virus, Hepatitis B, Feline Leukemia Virus, and Human T-lymphotropic virus.

states and African
Category: Member states of the African Union
Author James Basker states that the song has been employed by African Americans as the " paradigmatic Negro spiritual " because it expresses the joy felt at being delivered from slavery and worldly miseries.
Anthony Heilbut, author of The Gospel Sound, states that the " dangers, toils, and snares " of Newton's words are a " universal testimony " of the African American experience.
From the Medieval Arabic king lists of both African states, allegedly copied from earlier lists in ancient Near Eastern languages it appears that the state founders claimed to be deportees of the Assyrian empire who had fled from Syria and Samaria after the defeat of the Egyptian-Assyrian army at Carchemish in 605 BCE.
It should foster mutual regional trade among the member states, as well as with the US and Canada, the Pacific Union, the African Union, and the European Union.
After a referendum on territorial autonomy on 28 September 1958, French Equatorial Africa was dissolved, and its four constituent states – Gabon, Congo ( Brazzaville ), the Central African Republic, and Chad became autonomous members of the French Community from 28 November 1958.
The second noteworthy characteristic is that the country borders on very different parts of the African continent: North Africa, with its Islamic culture and economic orientation toward the Mediterranean Basin ; West Africa, with its diverse religions and cultures and its history of highly developed states and regional economies ; Northeast Africa, oriented toward the Nile Valley and Red Sea region ; and Central or Equatorial Africa, some of whose people have retained classical African religions while others have adopted Christianity, and whose economies were part of the great Congo River system.
Cameroon's noncontentious, low-profile approach to foreign relations puts it squarely in the middle of other African and developing country states on major issues.
Standardization of tax, customs, and security arrangements between the Central African states is a major foreign policy objective of the C. A. R.
generally joins other African and developing country states in consensus positions on major policy issues.
In 1996 a revitalized organization of seven East African states, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development ( IGAD ), established its secretariat in Djibouti.
To bolster stability and moderation in the region, Egypt has provided military assistance and training to a number of other African and Arab states.
In addition, many Nigerians work in Equatorial Guinea, as do immigrants from Cameroon and some West African states.
During the South African occupation of Namibia, Ethiopia was one of the country's leading proponents abroad ; Ethiopia and Liberia were the first two states to bring the question of independence for then South West Africa to the United Nations.
* Ethiopia was seen as a model by emerging African states of the 1950s and 1960s, as it was one of the oldest independent states in Africa.
A dispute over states ' rights has arisen involving enslaved African people who were the source of manual labor on cotton plantations throughout the South.
Albania opened trade negotiations with France, Italy, and the recently independent Asian and African states, and in 1971 it normalized relations with Yugoslavia and Greece.
Central African states
European states kept these weapons largely among themselves by refusing to sell these weapons to African leaders.
India has also forged close ties with the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the African Union, the Arab League and Iran.
However, in reality the southern Africans have always been in a minority within the African elephant range states.
To reiterate this point 19 African countries signed the " Accra Declaration " in 2006 calling for a total ivory trade ban and 20 range states attended a meeting in Kenya calling for a 20 year moratorium in 2007.

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