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Electrons were first discovered as the constituents of cathode rays.
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Electrons and were
Electrons were ideal for the role, as they are abundant and easily accelerated to high energies due to their electric charge.
Electrons and first
The term " covalence " in regard to bonding was first used in 1919 by Irving Langmuir in a Journal of the American Chemical Society article entitled " The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules ".
The first serious attack by Einstein on the " orthodox " conception took place during the Fifth Solvay International Conference on Electrons and Photons in 1927.
Glass ( Pray the Electrons Back to Sand ) ( 1994 ), a " Television-War Novel " about the first Gulf War, blurs reality into its electronic media equivalent, to suggest a new, amoral, surrealistically detached technological level to the old horrors of war.
Electrons and cathode
Electrons which diffuse from the cathode into the P-doped layer, or anode, become what is termed " minority carriers " and tend to recombine there with the majority carriers, which are holes, on a timescale characteristic of the material which is the p-type minority carrier lifetime.
Electrons are at the heart of cathode ray tubes, which have been used extensively as display devices in laboratory instruments, computer monitors and television sets.
: Electrons are transferred from iron reducing oxygen in the atmosphere into water on the cathode, which is placed in another region of the metal.
Electrons are drawn from the anode to the cathode through an external circuit, producing direct current electricity.
Electrons are generated by a cold cathode, a hot cathode, a photocathode, or radio frequency ( RF ) ion sources.
Electrons can only reach ( and " illuminate ") a given plate element if both the grid and the plate are at a positive potential with respect to the cathode.
Electrons from the cathode collide with the anode material, usually tungsten, molybdenum or copper, and accelerate other electrons, ions and nuclei within the anode material.
Electrons are transported through an external circuit from anode to cathode, providing power to connected devices.
Electrons and rays
In 1936, the two published a paper, " The Passage of Fast Electrons and the Theory of Cosmic Showers " in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A, in which they used their theory to describe how primary cosmic rays from outer space interact with the upper atmosphere to produce particles observed at the ground level.
Electrons and .
Electrons that are bound to atoms possess a set of stable energy levels, or orbitals, and can undergo transitions between them by absorbing or emitting photons that match the energy differences between the levels.
These he interpreted as " negative-energy electrons " and attempted to identify them with protons in his 1930 paper A Theory of Electrons and Protons However, these " negative-energy electrons " turned out to be positrons, and not protons.
Electrons in an s orbital benefit from closer proximity to the positively charged atom nucleus, and are therefore lower in energy.
Electrons are the charge carriers in metals and they follow an erratic path, bouncing from atom to atom, but generally drifting in the opposite direction of the electric field.
Electrons are extracted from metal electrodes either by heating the electrode, causing thermionic emission, or by applying a strong electric field and causing field electron emission.
Electrons can also be emitted from the electrodes of certain metals when light of frequency greater than the threshold frequency falls on it.
Electrons are responsible for emission of most EMR because they have low mass, and therefore are easily accelerated by a variety of mechanisms.
Electrons are bound by electromagnetic wave mechanics into orbitals around atomic nuclei to form atoms, which are the building blocks of molecules.
Electrons flow from the source terminal towards the drain terminal if influenced by an applied voltage.
His most noted publication was the famous 1919 article " The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules " in which, building on Gilbert N. Lewis's cubical atom theory and Walther Kossel's chemical bonding theory, he outlined his " concentric theory of atomic structure ".
Electrons are particulate radiation and, hence, have cross section many times larger than photons, so that they do not penetrate the product beyond a few inches, depending on product density.
Electrons that belong to different molecules start " fleeing " and avoiding each other at the short intermolecular distances, which is frequently described as formation of " instantaneous dipoles " that attract each other.
Electrons and how they interact with electromagnetic fields are important in our understanding of chemistry and physics.
Electrons emitted from the filament move several times in back and forth movements around the grid before finally entering the grid.
were and first
At first they were only feathers and dark indistinguishable faces and bodies, hunched over their horses' heads.
Two of the new hands, a Mexican named Jose Amado and a kid known only as Laredo, were picked for the first trick of riding night herd.
Even the knowledge that she was losing another boy, as a mother always does when a marriage is made, did not prevent her from having the first carefree, dreamless sleep that she had known since they dropped down the canyon and into Bear Valley, way, way back there when they were crossing those other mountains.
Out of compulsion to say something cheery, Ben Prime blurted, `` Well, we were lucky to be on soft ground when the first floodheads hit.
His political opponent and lifetime friend, Thomas Jefferson, achieved immortality through his authorship of the Declaration of Independence, but equally notable were the legal and constitutional reforms he instituted in his native Virginia, his role as father of our territorial system, and his acquisition of the Louisiana Territory during his first term as President.
This is the primary function of the imagination operating in the absence of the original experiential stimulus by which the images were first appropriated.
Before being daughter, wife, or mother, before being cultured ( a word now bereft both socially and politically of the sheen you children of frontiersmen bestowed on it ), before being sorry for the poor, progressive about public health, and prettily if somewhat imprecisely humanitarian, indeed first and foremost, you were a lady.
Even the first wave of homesickness had passed, although there were moments when Captain Heard pointed out on his compass the direction of Bradford that she felt a little twinge at her heart.
When they were first written, there was evidently no thought of their being published, and those which refer to the writer's love for Mrs. Meynell particularly have the ring of truth.
The evening of our first day we drove with Christopher and Judy Sakellariadis, who were friends and patients of Norton, to dine at a restaurant on the shores of the Aegean.
So persistent were these attacks that in March of the following year, Woodruff was finally moved to action, and Pike was to learn his first lesson in frontier politics, the subtle art of diversion.
In the next few months of comparative silence, Pike waited patiently until conditions were perfect for a new attack, and then, displaying a remarkable grasp of the subtleties of political infighting, gained from his first bout with Woodruff, he used these changed conditions to excellent advantage.
Although this kind of wholesale objection came at first from some men who were not technically Puritans, still, once the Puritans gained power, they climaxed the affair by passing the infamous ordinance of 1642 which decreed that all `` public stage-plays shall cease and be forborne ''.
Our first impression of the data was that the students were surprisingly orthodox and religiously involved.
But all the reports of this first embassy show that the two Savoyards were the heads of it, for they were the only ones who were empowered to swear for the king that he would abide by the pope's decision and who were allowed to appoint deputies in the event that one was unavoidably absent.
the Low Countries, where the Middle Ages were to last for another two centuries and die out only when Charles the Bold of Burgundy met his first defeat in the fields and forests below the walls of Grandson.
It was the first American war in which the death rate from disease was lower than that from battle, due to the provision of trained medical personnel ( of the 200,000 officers, 42,000 were physicians ), compulsory vaccination, rigorous camp sanitation, and adequate hospital facilities.
There were several men of ninety or more whom I knew first or last, all of whom were still productive and most of whom knew one another as if they had naturally come together at the apex of their lives.
It met a serious rebuff in New Orleans, where the two schools selected for the first moves toward integration were boycotted by white parents.
These microfossils indicate the swamp was `` formed during the Lower Cretaceous period when dinosaurs were at their heyday and when the first flowering plants were just appearing.