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Feminist economists call attention to the social constructions of traditional economics, questioning the extent to which it is positive and objective, and showing how its models and methods are biased towards masculine preferences.
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Feminist and economists
Feminist economists pushed for and produced gender aware theory and analysis, broadened the focus on economics and sought pluralism of methodology and research methods.
" Feminist economists call attention to the value judgements in all aspects economics and criticize its depiction an objective science.
" Feminist economists often extend these criticisms to many aspects of the social world, arguing that power relations are an endemic and important feature of society.
Feminist economists argue that people are more complex than such models, and call for " a more holistic vision of an economic actor, which includes group interactions and actions motivated by factors other than greed.
Feminist economists also point out that agency is not available to everyone, such as children, the sick, and the frail elderly.
Feminist economists, argue on the contrary that a mathematical conception of economics limited to scarce resources is a holdover from the early years of science and Cartesian philosophy, and limits economic analysis.
Feminist economists suggest that both the content and teaching style of economics courses would benefit from certain changes.
" Feminist economists show that social constructs act to privilege male-identified, western, and heterosexual interpretations of economics.
Feminist economists often make a critical distinction that masculine bias in economics is primarily a result of gender, not sex.
Feminist economists say that mainstream economics has been disproportionately developed by European-descended, heterosexual, middle and upper-middle class men, and that this has led to suppression of the life experiences of the full diversity of the world's people, especially women, children and those in non-traditional families.
Feminist economists also examine early economic thinkers ' interaction or lack of interaction with gender and women's issues, showing examples of women's historical engagement with economic thought.
Feminist economists Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum created the human capabilities approach as an alternative way to assess economic success rooted in the ideas of welfare economics and focused on the individual's potential to do and be what he or she may choose to value.
Feminist economists modify these assumptions to account for exploitative sexual and gender relations, single-parent families, same-sex relationships, familial relations with children, and the consequences of reproduction.
Feminist economists join the UN and others in acknowledging care work, as a kind of work which includes all tasks involving caregiving, as central to economic development and human well-being.
Feminist economists have argued that unpaid domestic work is as valuable as paid work, so measures of economic success should include unpaid work.
Feminist economists have also highlighted power and inequality issues within families and households.
Feminist economists seek to include the ramifications of this work in their data, analysis, and policy recommendations.
" Feminist economists have criticized the SNA for this exclusion, because by leaving out unpaid work, basic and necessary labor is ignored.
Feminist economists point out three main ways of determining the value of unpaid work: the opportunity cost method, replacement cost method, and input-output cost method.
Feminist economists such as Marilyn Power, Ellen Mutari and Deborah M. Figart have examined the gender pay gap and found that wage setting procedures are not primarily driven by market forces, but instead by the power of actors, cultural understandings of the value of work and what constitutes a proper living, and social gender norms.
Feminist economists say too many theories claim to present universal principles but actually present a masculine viewpoint in the guise of a " view from nowhere ," so more varied sources of data collection are needed to mediate those issues.
Feminist and call
Feminist economics call attention to the importance of non-market activities, such as childcare and domestic work, to economic development.
Hacking observes, " the label ' social constructionism ' is more code than description " of every Leftist, Marxist, Freudian, and Feminist PostModernist to call into question every moral, sex, gender, power, and deviant claim as just another essentialist claim — including the claim that members of the male and female sex are inherently different, rather than historically and socially constructed.
Some women object to this or even find it offensive ( per Feminist support for Dutch date practice above ) so it is a judgment call.
Feminist and attention
The stunt, staged by advertising collective Studio total, gave Feminist Initiative widespread attention, but in the election, the party received only 0. 4 % of the votes.
This move received some Swedish media attention for the fact that one of the two co-leaders of the Feminist Initiative, Gudrun Schyman, had been convicted on another finance-related crime, tax evasion.
In 1982 The Feminist Press brought The Living Is Easy back into print, giving new attention to West and her role in the Harlem Renaissance.
Feminist and social
Feminist advocacy for social change has done much to relax the constrictions of gender roles on men and women, but they are still heavily policed.
Feminist theory, which emerged from these feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience ; it has developed theories in a variety of disciplines in order to respond to issues such as the social construction of sex and gender.
Feminist theory typically characterizes patriarchy as a social construction, which can be overcome by revealing and critically analyzing its manifestations.
Feminist theory has explored the social construction of masculinity and its implications for the goal of gender equality.
Feminist science fiction poses questions about social issues such as how society constructs gender roles, the role reproduction plays in defining gender and the unequal political and personal power of men and women.
Feminist science fiction is sometimes taught at the university level to explore the role of social constructs in understanding gender.
* Feminist science fiction poses questions about social issues such as how society constructs gender roles, the role reproduction plays in defining gender and the unequal political and personal power of men and women.
* Feminist theory: The advocacy of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism.
Feminist activism explores the intersections of social, political, and cultural histories ( among various others denominators ), their implications, and dedicates time and energy to the liberation of all people from injustices.
Feminist views vary regarding the Tupperware format of sales through parties, and the social and economic role of women portrayed by the Tupperware model.
The notion of social structure was extensively developed in the 20th century, with key contributions from structuralist perspectives drawing on the theories of Claude Lévi-Strauss, Feminist or Marxist perspectives, from functionalist perspectives such as those developed by Talcott Parsons and his followers, or from a variety of analytic perspectives ( see Blau 1975, Lopez and Scott 2000 ).
Waskow has taught as a Visiting Professor in the religion departments of Swarthmore College ( 1982 – 83, on the thought of Martin Buber and on the Book of Genesis and its rabbinic and modern interpretations ); Temple University ( 1975 – 76 on contemporary Jewish theology and 1985 – 86, on liberation theologies in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam ); Drew University ( 1997 – 1998, on the ecological outlooks of ancient, rabbinic, and contemporary Judaism and on the synthesis of mysticism, feminism, and social action in the theology and practice of Jewish renewal ); Vassar College ( 1999 on Jewish Renewal and Feminist Judaism ); from 1982 to 1989 on the faculty of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College ( contemporary theology and practical rabbinics ); and in 2005 on the faulty of the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute for Religion ( the first course on Eco-Judaism in any rabbinical seminary ).
# Feminist researchers should engage in self-reflexivity, recognizing their personal social positions, interests, and values, and discussing how these interact with their research.
In March 1923, Ester Fanous established with other women the Egyptian Feminist Union to improve women's level in literature and social aspect and to promote them to be treated on equal footing with men in rights and obligations.
* Pellauer, Mary D. Toward a Tradition of Feminist Theology: the religious social thought of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Anna Howard Shaw.
Feminist sociology is a conflict theory and theoretical perspective which observes gender in its relation to power, both at the level of face-to-face interaction and reflexivity within a social structure at large.
Feminist standpoint theorists such as Dorothy Smith, Patricia Hill Collins, Nancy Hartsock, and Sandra Harding claimed that certain socio-political positions occupied by women ( and by extension other groups who lack social and economic privilege ) can become sites of epistemic privilege and thus productive starting points for enquiry into questions about not only those who are socially and politically marginalized, but also those who, by dint of social and political privilege, occupy the positions of oppressors.