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Page "Socialism" ¶ 41
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For and Marxists
For platformist anarcho-communist Wayne Price " Today ’ s proposals for Parecon, in which workers are rewarded for the intensity and duration of their labor in a cooperative economy, would fit into Bakunin ’ s or Marx ’ s concept of a transitory, beginning, phase, of a free society ... Kropotkin rejected the two-phase approach of the Marxists and the anarchist-collectivists.
For Marxists, the stage of economic development in which this is possible, sometimes called pure communism, is contingent upon advances in the productive capabilities of society.
For orthodox Marxists, socialism is the lower stage of communism based on the principle of " from each according to his ability, to each according to his contribution " while upper stage communism is based on the principle of " from each according to his ability, to each according to his need "; the upper stage becoming possible only after the socialist stage further develops economic efficiency and the automation of production has led to a superabundance of goods and services.
For Marxists, class antagonism is rooted in the situation that control over social production necessarily entails control over the class which produces goods — in capitalism this is the exploitation of workers by the bourgeoisie.
For Marxists the causes of and solutions to unemployment require abolishing capitalism and shifting to socialism or communism.
For contemporary Marxists, the existence of persistent unemployment is proof of the inability of capitalism to ensure full employment.
For the Marxists who had come to dominate the Socialist Labor Party by the 1890s, this idea was exactly backwards.
For Marxists, socialism or, as Marx termed it, the first phase of communist society, can be viewed as a transitional stage characterized by common or state ownership of the means of production under democratic workers ' control and management, which Engels argued was beginning to be realised in the Paris Commune of 1871, before it was overthrown.
For Marxists, the two most relevant classes are the " bourgeoisie ", those who own the means of production, and the " proletariat ", more explicitly, the wage laborers.
For Marxists ( especially those of the Soviet Realism type ), authorial intent is manifest in the text and must be placed in a context of liberation and the materialist dialectic.
For the new generation of recruits in the Sixties and early Seventies, he was the major link to the older generation of class-struggle militants and Marxists who had built the labour and socialist movements in previous decades.
For Marxists, the overthrow of the entire ruling class means not just a seizure of their state power, but the establishment of an entirely different sort of state, one structured to protect working class control of production -- such a fundamental change, it is usually argued, cannot take place within the electoral system of a state designed foremost for the protection of private property.
For Engels and other Marxists, this theory was important as it supported their conviction that materialistic factors — economic and technological — are decisive in shaping the fate of humanity.
For example, structural Marxists have attempted to use comparative methods to discover the general processes that underlie apparently different social orderings in different societies.
For their actions, the British government labelled these men as " India's earliest Marxists ".

For and development
For grant to the Government of India under subsection ( E ) of Section 104 of the Act, the rupee equivalent of not more than $538 million for financing such projects to promote balanced economic development as may from time to time be mutually agreed.
For loan to the Government of India under subsection ( G ) of Section 104 of the Act, the rupee equivalent of not more than $538 million for financing such projects to promote balanced economic development as may be mutually agreed.
For this first development the supplier signing the lease is a major oil company but in turn the deal is being transferred for operation to its local fueloil distributor.
For example, in accordance with the fashion of the times, most transitional societies have announced economic development plans of varying numbers of years ; ;
For the initial development an oxidation pond was constructed as shown in Figure 1.
For most of them, it will be their first experience in membership training, since this is a recent development in many churches.
For example, the monumental structures at Göbekli Tepe were built by hunters and gatherers a thousand years before the development of agriculture.
For their discovery and development of penicillin as a therapeutic drug, Ernst Chain, Howard Florey, and Alexander Fleming shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Medicine.
For example, concerning the parameter of per capita income growth, development economist Ha-Joon Chang writes that considering the record of the last two decades the argument for continuing neo-liberal policy prescriptions are " simply untenable.
For a girl in puberty, during thelarche ( the breast-development stage ), the female sex hormones ( principally estrogens ) promote the sprouting, growth, and development of the breasts, in the course of which, as mammary glands, they grow in size and volume, and usually rest on her chest ; these development stages of secondary sex characteristics ( breasts, pubic hair, etc.
For this reason, and as a means for stimulating urgently needed economic growth, highways have become indispensable for the sustainable development of this country.
( For some more information about the early development, see the article " Gracht ", section " Delft as an example ").
For example, embryonal development in placental mammals starts with cleavage of the zygote into eight uncommited cells, which then form a ball ( morula ).
For several decades his department at University College was pivotal in the development of phonetics and in making its findings known to the wider world.
In 2011, the university, along with WWF-Canada created the Conservation Legacy For Oceans, which aimed at providing scholarships, funding, curriculum development and work placements for students and academics dedicated to marine research, law, management and policy making.
For instance, one interface used during early development could declare everything public, whereas one used in testing and deployment could limit this.
( For more on behaviorism's role, see Behavior analysis of child development ).
For example, there have been a number of epidemiological studies of looking for a relationship between cell phone use and brain cancer development, which have been largely inconclusive, save to demonstrate that the effect, if it exists, cannot be a large one.
For example, some new product development projects place a high premium on finishing quickly.
For Haeckel, language specifically represented the concept that all phenomena of human development relate to the laws of biology.
For example, educational psychologists have conducted research on the instructional applicability of Jean Piaget's theory of development, according to which children mature through four stages of cognitive capability.
For example, Forth was the first resident software on the new Intel 8086 chip in 1978 and MacFORTH was the first resident development system for the first Apple Macintosh in 1984.
For example, as the only neutral atom with an analytic solution to the Schrödinger equation, the study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics.
For example, the domestication of maize for agriculture has been dated to about 9, 000 years ago in southern Mexico, before the development of writing systems .< ref >

For and capitalism
For Fromm, capitalism is the enemy, the root of all evil.
For example, a multi-sited ethnography may follow a " thing ," such as a particular commodity, as it is transported through the networks of global capitalism.
For example, one begins to answer the question " Why did China not develop modern science and capitalism?
For Adorno and Horkheimer state intervention in the economy had effectively abolished the tension in capitalism between the " relations of production " and " material productive forces of society ," a tension which, according to traditional critical theory, constituted the primary contradiction within capitalism.
For some years past I have managed to make the capitalist class pay me several pounds a week for writing books against capitalism.
For example, capitalism tends to increase the rate at which the forces develop and stresses the accumulation of capital.
For example, the economist Joseph Schumpeter argued that capitalism did not begin with the Industrial Revolution but in 14th century Italy.
For it he wrote Third World War, drawn initially by Carlos Ezquerra, a polemical critique of global capitalism and the ways it exploits the developing world.
For anarchists, state socialism is equivalent to state capitalism, hence oppressive and merely a shift from private capitalists to the state being the sole employer and capitalist.
For Marx, a productive inquiry had to investigate what sorts of things are good for people — that is, what our nature, alienated under capitalism, really is.
For example, Russian geographer Georgi Plekhanov argued that the reason his nation was still in the feudal era, rather than having progressed to capitalism and becoming ripe for the revolution into communism, was that the wide plains of Russia allowed class conflicts to be easily diffused.
For example, in the 19th century, Conservatives opposed classic Liberalism, favouring factory regulation, market intervention, and various controls to mitigate the effects of laissez faire capitalism, but in the 20th century, the role of Conservativism was to oppose a danger from the opposite direction, the excessive regulation, intervention, and controls favoured by Socialism.
For Jameson, " every position on postmodernism today-whether apologia or stigmatization-is also ... necessarily an implicitly or explicitly political stance on the nature of multinational capitalism today ".
For Toynbee, early industrial capitalism and the situation of the working class in it was not just a subject of ivory-tower studies ; he was actively involved in improving the living conditions of the proletariat.
" For de Ligt, and all anarchists, violence is inherent in the capitalist system and any attempt to make capitalism pacifistic is doomed to failure.
For example, the preamble to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam's constitution states that Vietnam only entered a transition stage between capitalism and socialism after the country was re-unified under the Communist party in 1976, and the 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Cuba states that the role of the Communist Party is to " guide the common effort toward the goals and construction of socialism ".
For Bordiga, the party was ' the social brain ' of the working class whose task was not to seek majority support, but to concentrate on working for an armed insurrection, in the course of which it would seize power and then use it to abolish capitalism and impose a communist society by force.
For instance, within the field of social ethics, Deirdre McCloskey argues that virtue ethics can provide a basis for a balanced approach to understanding capitalism and capitalist societies.
In the book For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign ( 1972 ), Baudrillard developed the semiotic theory of " the Sign " ( sign value ) as a development of Marx's theory of commodity fetishism and of the exchange-value vs. use-value dichotomy of capitalism.
For Engels, this was what the dictatorship of the proletariat looked like ( as opposed to the " dictatorship of the bourgeoisie ", which was capitalism ).

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