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Formally, a system is said to be observable if, for any possible sequence of state and control vectors, the current state can be determined in finite time using only the outputs ( this definition is slanted towards the state space representation ).
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Formally and system
However, shortly after this positive result, Kurt Gödel published On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems ( 1931 ), showing that in any sufficiently strong axiomatic system there are true statements which cannot be proved in the system.
Formally known as the " Six and A Half Point Pole " form, this is the second to last form of the system.
Formally, HPGCC is a cross-compiler ; it compiles code for the ARM-based HP calculators, but runs on a PC rather than the target system.
Formally, an unlabelled state transition system is a tuple ( S, →) where S is a set ( of states ) and → ⊆ S × S is a binary relation over S ( of transitions ).
Formally, an iterated function system is a finite set of contraction mappings on a complete metric space.
Formally, knowing the step response of a dynamical system gives information on the stability of such a system, and on its ability to reach one stationary state when starting from another.
Formally, let G be a Coxeter group with reduced root system R and k < sub > v </ sub > a multiplicity function on R ( so k < sub > u </ sub > = k < sub > v </ sub > whenever the reflections σ < sub > u </ sub > and σ < sub > v </ sub > corresponding to the roots u and v are conjugate in G ).
Formally, a squeeze preserves the hyperbolic metric expressed in the form ; in a different coordinate system.
Formally, an Hamiltonian system is a dynamical system completely described by the scalar function, the Hamiltonian.
Formally, a graph rewriting system usually consists of a set of graph rewrite rules of the form, with being called pattern graph ( or left-hand side ) and being called replacement graph ( or right-hand side of the rule ).
Formally, Transnistria has a multi-party system and an unicameral parliament, called the Supreme Council.
Formally, a redistribution of all agents ’ initial endowments of goods among all agents in the system is a core allocation if no group of agents can redistribute their own initial endowments among themselves so as to improve the satisfaction of someone in the group without impairing that of any other in the group.
Formally known as the " Eastern Division of Surrey " or " Surrey Eastern ", it elected two MPs by the bloc vote system.
Formally, a Markov partition is used to provide a finite cover for the smooth system ; each set of the cover is associated with a single symbol, and the sequences of symbols result as a trajectory of the system moves from one of the covering sets to another.
Formally system networks correspond to type lattices in formal lattice theory, although they are occasionally erroneously mistaken for flowcharts or directed decision trees.
Formally known as the Federal Reserve Wire Network, Fedwire is a Real Time Gross Settlement Funds Transfer system operated by the United States Federal Reserve Banks that enables financial institutions to electronically transfer funds between its more than 9, 289 participants ( as of March 19, 2009 ).
Formally and is
Formally organized vocational programs supported by federal funds allow high school students to gain experience in a field of work which is likely to lead to a full-time job on graduation.
Formally, the set of all context-free languages is identical to the set of languages accepted by pushdown automata ( PDA ).
More rigorously, the divergence of a vector field F at a point p is defined as the limit of the net flow of F across the smooth boundary of a three dimensional region V divided by the volume of V as V shrinks to p. Formally,
Formally, the base is known as Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia ( the US activity ) or Permanent Joint Operating Base ( PJOB ) Diego Garcia ( the UK's term ).
Formally, there is a clear distinction: " DFT " refers to a mathematical transformation or function, regardless of how it is computed, whereas " FFT " refers to a specific family of algorithms for computing DFTs.
Formally, oxidation state is the hypothetical charge that an atom would have if all bonds to atoms of different elements were 100 % ionic.
Formally, an inner product space is a vector space V over the field together with an inner product, i. e., with a map
Formally, if M is a set, the identity function f on M is defined to be that function with domain and codomain M which satisfies
* Formally, when working over the reals, as here, this is accomplished by considering the limit as ε → 0 ; but the " infinitesimal " language generalizes directly to Lie groups over general rings.
Formally, a profinite group is a Hausdorff, compact, and totally disconnected topological group: that is, a topological group that is also a Stone space.
Formally, this sharing of dynamics is referred to as universality, and systems with precisely the same critical exponents are said to belong to the same universality class.
Formally, a frame is defined to be a lattice L in which finite meets distribute over arbitrary joins, i. e. every ( even infinite ) subset
Formally and said
Informally, G has the above presentation if it is the " freest group " generated by S subject only to the relations R. Formally, the group G is said to have the above presentation if it is isomorphic to the quotient of a free group on S by the normal subgroup generated by the relations R.
Formally, a vertex cover of a graph G is a set C of vertices such that each edge of G is incident to at least one vertex in C. The set C is said to cover the edges of G. The following figure shows examples of vertex covers in two graphs ( and the set C is marked with red ).
Formally and be
Formally the " head of state " can also personally be the " head of government " ( ex officio or by ad hoc cumulation such as an absolute monarch nominating himself ) but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior ( absolute monarch, executive president ) or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character.
Formally, in the finite-dimensional case, if the linear map is represented as a multiplication by a matrix A and the translation as the addition of a vector, an affine map acting on a vector can be represented as
Formally, the convex hull may be defined as the intersection of all convex sets containing X or as the set of all convex combinations of points in X.
Formally, a decision problem is P-complete ( complete for the complexity class P ) if it is in P and that every problem in P can be reduced to it by using an appropriate reduction.
Formally, a detailed balanced process is the one on which the probability to be in the state x and transit to x ' must be the same as to be in the state x ' and transit to x.
If R is a ring, let R denote the ring of polynomials in the indeterminate X over R. Hilbert proved that if R is " not too large ", in the sense that if R is Noetherian, the same must be true for R. Formally,
Formally, a unique factorization domain is defined to be an integral domain R in which every non-zero and non-unit x of R can be written as a product ( including an empty product ) of irreducible elements p < sub > i </ sub > of R and a unit u:
Formally, the problem of supervised pattern recognition can be stated as follows: Given an unknown function ( the ground truth ) that maps input instances to output labels, along with training data assumed to represent accurate examples of the mapping, produce a function that approximates as closely as possible the correct mapping.
Formally, a government would lay out its reasons for going to war, as well as its intentions in prosecuting it and the steps that might be taken to avert it.
Formally, the case where only a subset of parameters is defined is still a composite hypothesis ; nonetheless, the term point hypothesis is often applied in such cases, particularly where the hypothesis test can be structured in such a way that the distribution of the test statistic ( the distribution under the null hypothesis ) does not depend on the parameters whose values have not been specified under the point null hypothesis.