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Formally, if M is a set, the identity function f on M is defined to be that function with domain and codomain M which satisfies
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Formally and if
Formally, oxidation state is the hypothetical charge that an atom would have if all bonds to atoms of different elements were 100 % ionic.
Formally, if d is the dimension of the parameter, and n is the number of samples, if as and as, then the model is semi-parametric.
Formally, in the finite-dimensional case, if the linear map is represented as a multiplication by a matrix A and the translation as the addition of a vector, an affine map acting on a vector can be represented as
Formally, a decision problem is P-complete ( complete for the complexity class P ) if it is in P and that every problem in P can be reduced to it by using an appropriate reduction.
If R is a ring, let R denote the ring of polynomials in the indeterminate X over R. Hilbert proved that if R is " not too large ", in the sense that if R is Noetherian, the same must be true for R. Formally,
Formally, a hypothesis is compared against its opposite or null hypothesis (" if I release this ball, it will not fall to the floor ").
Formally, the sequence of partial sums of some infinite summation converges if for every fixed power of X the coefficient stabilizes: there is a point beyond which all further partial sums have the same coefficient.
Formally, a function ƒ is real analytic on an open set D in the real line if for any x < sub > 0 </ sub > in D one can write
Formally, if is an open subset of the complex plane, a point of, and is a holomorphic function, then is called a removable singularity for if there exists a holomorphic function which coincides with on.
Formally, two variables are inversely proportional ( or varying inversely, or in inverse variation, or in inverse proportion or in reciprocal proportion ) if one of the variables is directly proportional with the multiplicative inverse ( reciprocal ) of the other, or equivalently if their product is a constant.
Informally, G has the above presentation if it is the " freest group " generated by S subject only to the relations R. Formally, the group G is said to have the above presentation if it is isomorphic to the quotient of a free group on S by the normal subgroup generated by the relations R.
Formally, if we write F < sub > Δ </ sub >( x ) to mean the f-polynomial of Δ, then the h-polynomial of Δ is
Formally, a cardinal κ is defined to be weakly compact if it is uncountable and for every function f: < sup > 2 </ sup > →
Formally and M
Formally, the singular value decomposition of an m × n real or complex matrix M is a factorization of the form
Formally, cl ( S ) denotes the smallest subset Y of M that contains S such that for each reaction ( A, B )
Formally, scalar multiplication is a linear map, inducing a map ( send a scalar λ to the corresponding scalar transformation, multiplication by λ ) exhibiting End ( M ) as a R-algebra.
Formally, the problem can be stated as follows: given a desired property, expressed as a temporal logic formula p, and a structure M with initial state s, decide if.
Formally, a cardinal number κ is λ-unfoldable if and only if for every transitive model M of cardinality κ of ZFC-minus-power set such that κ is in M and M contains all its sequences of length less than κ, there is a non-trivial elementary embedding j of M into a transitive model with the critical point of j being κ and j ( κ ) ≥ λ.
Formally, the definition only requires some invertibility, so we can substitute for Q any matrix M whose eigenvalues do not include − 1.
Formally, the normal bundle to N in M is a quotient bundle of the tangent bundle on M: one has the short exact sequence of vector bundles on N:
Formally and is
Formally organized vocational programs supported by federal funds allow high school students to gain experience in a field of work which is likely to lead to a full-time job on graduation.
Formally, the set of all context-free languages is identical to the set of languages accepted by pushdown automata ( PDA ).
More rigorously, the divergence of a vector field F at a point p is defined as the limit of the net flow of F across the smooth boundary of a three dimensional region V divided by the volume of V as V shrinks to p. Formally,
Formally, the base is known as Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia ( the US activity ) or Permanent Joint Operating Base ( PJOB ) Diego Garcia ( the UK's term ).
Formally, there is a clear distinction: " DFT " refers to a mathematical transformation or function, regardless of how it is computed, whereas " FFT " refers to a specific family of algorithms for computing DFTs.
Formally, an inner product space is a vector space V over the field together with an inner product, i. e., with a map
* Formally, when working over the reals, as here, this is accomplished by considering the limit as ε → 0 ; but the " infinitesimal " language generalizes directly to Lie groups over general rings.
Formally, a profinite group is a Hausdorff, compact, and totally disconnected topological group: that is, a topological group that is also a Stone space.
Formally, this sharing of dynamics is referred to as universality, and systems with precisely the same critical exponents are said to belong to the same universality class.
Formally, a frame is defined to be a lattice L in which finite meets distribute over arbitrary joins, i. e. every ( even infinite ) subset