Page "Null hypothesis" ¶ 26
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## Some Related Sentences

Formally and case
Formally, in the finite-dimensional case, if the linear map is represented as a multiplication by a matrix A and the translation as the addition of a vector, an affine map acting on a vector can be represented as
Formally, the situation has the characteristics of a prisoner's dilemma game that is played repeatedly between the same partners, and in this case " defection "-jumping the queue-would not be advantageous.
Formally, assuming our intuition from the finite dimensional case carries over into the infinite dimensional setting, the measure should then be equal to

Formally and where
Formally, the theorem is stated as follows: There exist unique integers q and r such that a = qd + r and 0 ≤ r < | d |, where | d | denotes the absolute value of d.
Formally, the discrete cosine transform is a linear, invertible function ( where denotes the set of real numbers ), or equivalently an invertible N × N square matrix.
Formally, the two parts are given by the following expression, where is the number being encoded:
Formally, the discrete sine transform is a linear, invertible function F: R < sup > N </ sup > < tt >-></ tt > R < sup > N </ sup > ( where R denotes the set of real numbers ), or equivalently an N × N square matrix.
Formally, the discrete Hartley transform is a linear, invertible function H: R < sup > n </ sup > < tt >-></ tt > R < sup > n </ sup > ( where R denotes the set of real numbers ).
Formally, a constraint satisfaction problem is defined as a triple, where is a set of variables, is a domain of values, and is a set of constraints.
Formally, the outcomes Y < sub > i </ sub > are described as being Bernoulli-distributed data, where each outcome is determined by an unobserved probability p < sub > i </ sub > that is specific to the outcome at hand, but related to the explanatory variables.
Formally, a hypergraph is a pair where is a set of elements called nodes or vertices, and is a set of non-empty subsets of called hyperedges or edges.
Formally, an nth order approximation is one where the order of magnitude of the error is at most, or in terms of big O notation, the error is
Formally, an unlabelled state transition system is a tuple ( S, →) where S is a set ( of states ) and → ⊆ S × S is a binary relation over S ( of transitions ).
Formally, the principle of subsidiarity applies to those areas where the Community does not have exclusive competence, the principle delineating those areas where the Community should and should not act.
Formally, though, the name only survives in Finland and Sweden, where provinces bear the name.
Formally, a state space can be defined as a tuple where:
Formally, the complexity class MA is the set of decision problems that can be decided in polynomial time by an Arthur – Merlin protocol where Merlin's only move precedes any computation by Arthur.
Formally, an antihomomorphism between X and Y is a homomorphism, where equals Y as a set, but has multiplication reversed: denoting the multiplication on Y as and the multiplication on as, we have.
Formally, a ( one-tape ) alternating Turing machine is a 5-tuple where
Formally, a combinatorial optimization problem is a quadruple, where
Formally, we define a bad field as a structure of the form ( K, T ), where K is an algebraically closed field and T is an infinite, proper, distinguished subgroup of K, such that ( K, T ) is of finite Morley rank in its full language.
Formally, the 1772 Constitution was adopted by the Parliament ( Riksdag ) on 21 August 1772, but this took place as members of the Parliament and the Privy Council were under threat by the royal garrison on order by King Gustav III outside of Stockholm Palace, where the Parliament and Privy Council were assembled in different parts of the palace.
Formally, a deterministic finite automaton may be defined by the tuple where is the set of states of the automaton, is the set of input symbols, is the transition function that takes a state and an input symbol to a new state, is the initial state of the automaton, and is the set of accepting or final states of the automaton.
Formally accepted as a candidate for the Franciscan Order at Christ House in Lafayette, New Jersey, in 1970, the following year he entered the novitiate of the Order at St. Francis Friary in Brookline, Massachusetts, where he professed his first vows in 1972.
Formally it is an 8-tuple where

Formally and only
Formally the Prince-Electors elected a King of the Romans, who was elected in Germany but became Holy Roman Emperor only when crowned by the Pope.
Formally, Gaussian curvature only depends on the Riemannian metric of the surface.
Informally, G has the above presentation if it is the " freest group " generated by S subject only to the relations R. Formally, the group G is said to have the above presentation if it is isomorphic to the quotient of a free group on S by the normal subgroup generated by the relations R.
Formally, wives only join their husband's household after the birth of their first child.
Formally the euro is the only legal tender in Büsingen ; however, the Swiss franc is far more popular in everyday use as shopping is generally done in nearby Schaffhausen instead of across the border ( s ) in Germany.
Formally, Mbenga – Mbuti Pygmy music consists of at most only four parts, and can be described as an, " ostinato with variations ," or similar to a passacaglia, in that it is cyclical.
Formally, a cardinal number κ is λ-unfoldable if and only if for every transitive model M of cardinality κ of ZFC-minus-power set such that κ is in M and M contains all its sequences of length less than κ, there is a non-trivial elementary embedding j of M into a transitive model with the critical point of j being κ and j ( κ ) ≥ λ.
Formally, a system is said to be observable if, for any possible sequence of state and control vectors, the current state can be determined in finite time using only the outputs ( this definition is slanted towards the state space representation ).
Formally, the definition only requires some invertibility, so we can substitute for Q any matrix M whose eigenvalues do not include − 1.
Formally, if is a limit ordinal, then a set is closed in if and only if for every < math >
Formally Roman Kalyn is now the only member of the group, but de-facto GreenJolly exists in name only.
Formally, if and only if, for any given, there exists an such that
Formally, a number n is colossally abundant if and only if there is an ε > 0 such that for all k > 1,
Formally, a natural number n is called highly abundant if and only if for all natural numbers m < n,
Formally this mission was declared to be only in pursuit of the Russian vessels and ammunition taken to Anzali by the White Russian counter-revolutionary General Denikin, who had been given asylum by British forces in Anzali.
Formally known as Crown Point Airport, the airport was renamed the Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson International Airport on May 19, 2011 in honour of the only Prime Minister and President from the island of Tobago.

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