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Formally and complexity
Formally, a decision problem is P-complete ( complete for the complexity class P ) if it is in P and that every problem in P can be reduced to it by using an appropriate reduction.
Formally, the process is one of progressive development, divided into three stages of increasingly complexity.

Formally and class
Formally, this means that the probability density functions or probability mass functions in this class have the form
Formally, this sharing of dynamics is referred to as universality, and systems with precisely the same critical exponents are said to belong to the same universality class.
Formally it is precisely in allowing quantification over class variables α, β, etc., that we assume a range of values for these variables to refer to.
Formally, it may even be taken back to Marx's earliest statements about a class becoming conscious of itself and developing a class identity.
Formally, a frieze group is a class of infinite discrete symmetry groups for patterns on a strip ( infinitely wide rectangle ), hence a class of groups of isometries of the plane, or of a strip.
Formally established in 1921, the Profintern was intended to act as a counterweight to the influence of the so-called " Amsterdam International ," the Social Democratic International Federation of Trade Unions, an organization branded as class collaborationist and an impediment to revolution by the Comintern.
Formally, a biased graph Ω is a pair ( G, B ) where B is a linear class of circles ; this by definition is a class of circles that satisfies the theta-graph property mentioned above.

Formally and is
Formally organized vocational programs supported by federal funds allow high school students to gain experience in a field of work which is likely to lead to a full-time job on graduation.
Formally, a binary operation on a set S is called associative if it satisfies the associative law:
Formally, their designation is the letter Ž and the number.
Formally, a topological space X is called compact if each of its open covers has a finite subcover.
Formally, the set of all context-free languages is identical to the set of languages accepted by pushdown automata ( PDA ).
Formally, the derivative of the function f at a is the limit
More rigorously, the divergence of a vector field F at a point p is defined as the limit of the net flow of F across the smooth boundary of a three dimensional region V divided by the volume of V as V shrinks to p. Formally,
Formally, the base is known as Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia ( the US activity ) or Permanent Joint Operating Base ( PJOB ) Diego Garcia ( the UK's term ).
Formally, there is a clear distinction: " DFT " refers to a mathematical transformation or function, regardless of how it is computed, whereas " FFT " refers to a specific family of algorithms for computing DFTs.
Formally, oxidation state is the hypothetical charge that an atom would have if all bonds to atoms of different elements were 100 % ionic.
Formally, a bifunctor is a functor whose domain is a product category.
Formally, a set S is called finite if there exists a bijection
Formally, the system is said to have memory.
Formally, an inner product space is a vector space V over the field together with an inner product, i. e., with a map
Formally, if M is a set, the identity function f on M is defined to be that function with domain and codomain M which satisfies
* Formally, when working over the reals, as here, this is accomplished by considering the limit as ε → 0 ; but the " infinitesimal " language generalizes directly to Lie groups over general rings.
Formally, a profinite group is a Hausdorff, compact, and totally disconnected topological group: that is, a topological group that is also a Stone space.
Formally, a frame is defined to be a lattice L in which finite meets distribute over arbitrary joins, i. e. every ( even infinite ) subset
Formally, Φ = kx − ωt is the phase.

Formally and set
Formally speaking, a collation method typically defines a total order on a set of possible identifiers, called sort keys, which consequently produces a total preorder on the set of items of information ( items with the same identifier are not placed in any defined order ).
Formally, one has an implication, not an equivalence, so the solution set may get larger.
Formally, according to the Constitution, citizens of Turkmenistan have the right to set up political parties and other public associations, acting within the framework of the Constitution and laws, and public associations and groups of citizens have the right to nominate their candidates in accordance with the election law.
Formally, the weighted mean of a non-empty set of data
Formally, the convex hull may be defined as the intersection of all convex sets containing X or as the set of all convex combinations of points in X.
Formally, Gaussian integers are the set
Formally, the discrete cosine transform is a linear, invertible function ( where denotes the set of real numbers ), or equivalently an invertible N × N square matrix.
Formally, we are given a set of hypotheses and a set of manifestations ; they are related by the domain knowledge, represented by a function that takes as an argument a set of hypotheses and gives as a result the corresponding set of manifestations.
Formally, a function ƒ is real analytic on an open set D in the real line if for any x < sub > 0 </ sub > in D one can write
Formally, start with a set Ω and consider the sigma algebra Σ on Ω consisting of all subsets of Ω.
Formally, the movement is a rondo that acts as the theme for a set of eight variations, capped off by a dramatic coda.
Formally, the discrete sine transform is a linear, invertible function F: R < sup > N </ sup > < tt >-></ tt > R < sup > N </ sup > ( where R denotes the set of real numbers ), or equivalently an N × N square matrix.
Formally, starting with a linearly independent set of vectors
Formally, the discrete Hartley transform is a linear, invertible function H: R < sup > n </ sup > < tt >-></ tt > R < sup > n </ sup > ( where R denotes the set of real numbers ).
Formally, a constraint satisfaction problem is defined as a triple, where is a set of variables, is a domain of values, and is a set of constraints.

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