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Formally, the problem can be stated as follows: given a desired property, expressed as a temporal logic formula p, and a structure M with initial state s, decide if.
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Formally and problem
Formally, a decision problem is P-complete ( complete for the complexity class P ) if it is in P and that every problem in P can be reduced to it by using an appropriate reduction.
Formally, a transductive support vector machine is defined by the following primal optimization problem:
Formally, the problem of supervised pattern recognition can be stated as follows: Given an unknown function ( the ground truth ) that maps input instances to output labels, along with training data assumed to represent accurate examples of the mapping, produce a function that approximates as closely as possible the correct mapping.
Formally, a constraint satisfaction problem is defined as a triple, where is a set of variables, is a domain of values, and is a set of constraints.
Formally and can
Formally, arbitrage transactions have negative skew – prices can get a small amount closer ( but often no closer than 0 ), while they can get very far apart.
Formally the " head of state " can also personally be the " head of government " ( ex officio or by ad hoc cumulation such as an absolute monarch nominating himself ) but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior ( absolute monarch, executive president ) or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character.
Formally, in the finite-dimensional case, if the linear map is represented as a multiplication by a matrix A and the translation as the addition of a vector, an affine map acting on a vector can be represented as
Formally, a unique factorization domain is defined to be an integral domain R in which every non-zero and non-unit x of R can be written as a product ( including an empty product ) of irreducible elements p < sub > i </ sub > of R and a unit u:
Formally, a function ƒ is real analytic on an open set D in the real line if for any x < sub > 0 </ sub > in D one can write
Formally, the case where only a subset of parameters is defined is still a composite hypothesis ; nonetheless, the term point hypothesis is often applied in such cases, particularly where the hypothesis test can be structured in such a way that the distribution of the test statistic ( the distribution under the null hypothesis ) does not depend on the parameters whose values have not been specified under the point null hypothesis.
Formally, the poem can be understood as the combination of two sonnets, though the spacing of the stanzas is irregular.
Formally, Mbenga – Mbuti Pygmy music consists of at most only four parts, and can be described as an, " ostinato with variations ," or similar to a passacaglia, in that it is cyclical.
Formally, the complexity class MA is the set of decision problems that can be decided in polynomial time by an Arthur – Merlin protocol where Merlin's only move precedes any computation by Arthur.
Formally, a system is said to be observable if, for any possible sequence of state and control vectors, the current state can be determined in finite time using only the outputs ( this definition is slanted towards the state space representation ).
Formally, the definition only requires some invertibility, so we can substitute for Q any matrix M whose eigenvalues do not include − 1.
Formally, given a finite set X, a collection C of subsets of X, all of size n, has Property B if we can partition X into two disjoint subsets Y and Z such that every set in C meets both Y and Z.
Formally, the issue is that interfertile " able to interbreed " is not a transitive relation – if A can breed with B, and B can breed with C, it does not follow that A can breed with C – and thus does not define an equivalence relation.
Formally and be
However, shortly after this positive result, Kurt Gödel published On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems ( 1931 ), showing that in any sufficiently strong axiomatic system there are true statements which cannot be proved in the system.
Formally, if M is a set, the identity function f on M is defined to be that function with domain and codomain M which satisfies
Formally, a frame is defined to be a lattice L in which finite meets distribute over arbitrary joins, i. e. every ( even infinite ) subset
Formally, the convex hull may be defined as the intersection of all convex sets containing X or as the set of all convex combinations of points in X.
Formally, a detailed balanced process is the one on which the probability to be in the state x and transit to x ' must be the same as to be in the state x ' and transit to x.
If R is a ring, let R denote the ring of polynomials in the indeterminate X over R. Hilbert proved that if R is " not too large ", in the sense that if R is Noetherian, the same must be true for R. Formally,
Formally, a government would lay out its reasons for going to war, as well as its intentions in prosecuting it and the steps that might be taken to avert it.
Formally and stated
Formally stated, the FFT is a method for computing the discrete Fourier transform of a sampled signal.
Formally, the theorem is stated as follows: There exist unique integers q and r such that a = qd + r and 0 ≤ r < | d |, where | d | denotes the absolute value of d.
“ Formally stated, interactivity is an expression of the extent that in a given series of communication exchanges, any third ( or later ) transmission ( or message ) is related to the degree to which previous exchanges referred to even earlier transmissions ” ( Sheizaf Rafaeli, “ Interactivity, From New Media to Communication ,” pages 110-34 in Advanced Communicational Science: Merging Mass and Interpersonal Processes, ed.