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Foucault and warns
Foucault warns that it has nothing to do with Machiavelli's or Hobbes's discourse on war, for to this popular discourse, the Sovereign is nothing more than " an illusion, an instrument, or, at the best, an enemy.

Foucault and author's
" Foucault believed that when we include certain works in an author's career and exclude others that were written in a " different style ," or were " inferior " ( Foucault 1969, 111 ), we create a stylistic unity and a theoretical coherence.

Foucault and name
Western philosopher Michel Foucault, claimed that as sexual subjects, humans are the object of power, which is not an institution or structure, rather it is a signifier or name attributed to " complex strategical situation ".
It was Foucault who gave the device its modern name, in an experiment to see ( Greek skopeein, to see ) the Earth's rotation ( Greek gyros, circle or rotation ), which was visible in the 8 to 10 minutes before friction slowed the spinning rotor.
Foucault had preferred L ' Ordre des choses for the original French title, but changed it as there was already another book by that name.
The historico-political discourse analyzed by Michel Foucault in Society Must Be Defended ( 1975 – 76 ) considered truth as the fragile product of a historical struggle, first conceptualized under the name of " race struggle " — however, " race "' s meaning was different from today's biological notion, being closer to the sense of " nation " ( distinct from nation-states ; its signification is here closer to " people ").
In 1857, Foucault invented the polarizer which bears his name, and in the succeeding year devised a method of testing the mirror of a reflecting telescope to determine its shape.
In his lyrics, there are influences of multiple writers, poets and artists like Arthur Rimbaud, Vincent van Gogh, Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud, Friedrich Nietzsche, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Carlos Castaneda and Antonin Artaud, who has his name in the album Artaud.
" The problem for Foucault is in some sense a theoretical modeling which posits a soul, an identity ( the use of soul being fortunate since ' identity ' or ' name ' would not properly express the method of subjection — e. g., if mere materiality were used as a way of tracking individuals then the method of punishment would not have switched from torture to psychiatry ) which allows a whole materiality of prison to develop.
Foucault investigates the functioning of the ' obscure ' in history and human society which informs human thought and becomes familiar to humans ( populations ) who have no direct access to say, policy making and policy decisions ( they are excluded ) of government and states which operate as Raison d ' état in ' their ' name and therefore functions as governmental reasoning and society's institutions leaving a functioning civil society as the populations ' truth ' and their ' norm '.
Although Michel Foucault is the name primarily associated with the concept of biopower and bio-politics, the term Biopolitics was in fact used tentatively in 1911 when the magazine The New Age published the article " Biopolitics " by G. W. Harris and then reused in 1938 by Morley Roberts ( 1857 – 1942 ) in his book Biopolitics.
Foucault then situates liberalism's take on society where liberalism sees the state and society as a societal organism ( neoliberalism never mentions it in any of their narratives nor is it ever mentioned by name as it is automatically assumed by liberalism that state organization was automatically, ingrained in the human psyche in the guise of an invisible organic whole called the body politic, where all humans are involved regardless of their class position ) capable of producing, multiplying, reproducing and if necessary, having a destructive capability.

Foucault and mind
This is a slight point to make but a valid one when considering that he was effectively the ' master of the archive ' and was brilliant at excavating ' obscure material ' Foucault concentrates more on neo-liberalism's political justification for state existence, rather than Skinner's techniques on controlling human behavior through controlling the mind Manuel Castells while operating in the field of social science dares to venture outside the limited field of social science which he noticed in his brilliant work Communication Power where
It is clear then that any standard neuroscience journal will show you this, it is not the body but the mind, as is often thought by Foucault and the postmodernism movement, both thought that the body ( not the mind ), an often repeated mistake a simple mistake, but a crucial one.
What Foucault means by the governmentality of the sovereign is the mind of the police runs through all of the populations, collective consciousness therefore, reducing criminality not its complete elimination, for political and economic reasons ( see Discipline and Punish ), not through fear, but the knowledge of the police as a system with its own structural objective as laws, judicial, legislative operating as a microcosm of the societal body, which ultimately represents the sovereigns will.
Foucault traces the conceptual discourse of the populace back to the Middle Ages definition of the pastorate which to the Middle Ages mind meant salvation, obedience and truth.

Foucault and during
In the English-speaking world, the work would become a significant influence over the anti-psychiatry movement during the 1960s ; Foucault himself took a mixed approach to this movement, associating with a number of figures involved in it but arguing that most of the anti-psychiatrists fundamentally misunderstood his work.
It was during the height of interest in structuralism in 1966, and Foucault was quickly grouped with scholars such as Jacques Lacan, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Roland Barthes as the newest, latest wave of thinkers set to topple the existentialism popularized by Jean-Paul Sartre.
In 1970 Foucault began a schedule of weekly public lectures and seminars during the first three months of each year at the Collège de France as the condition of his tenure as professor there.
The original Foucault pendulum was exhibited as part of the collection, but was moved to the Panthéon in 1995 during museum renovation.
Part One, entitled " We “ Other Victorians ”", opens with a discussion of what Foucault calls the " repressive hypothesis ", the widespread belief among late 20th-century westerners that sexuality, and the open discussion of sex, was socially repressed during the late 17th, 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, a by-product of the rise of capitalism and bourgeois society.
Michel Foucault, for example, argued that attitudes towards the " insane " during the late-18th and early 19th centuries show that supposedly enlightened notions of humane treatment were not universally adhered to, but instead, that the Age of Reason had to construct an image of " Unreason " against which to take an opposing stand.
After the deaths of Thévenot and d ' Herbelot, Galland lived for some time at Caen under the roof of Nicolas Foucault, the intendant of Caen, himself no mean archaeologist ; and there he began in 1704 the publication of Les mille et Une Nuits, which excited immense interest during the time of its appearance, and is still the standard French translation.
Governmentality is a concept first developed by the French philosopher Michel Foucault in the later years of his life, roughly between 1977 and his death in 1984, particularly in his lectures at the Collège de France during this time.
In 1977, British psychiatrist David Cooper asked Michel Foucault the same question which Claude Bourdet had formerly asked Viktor Fainberg during a press conference given by Fainberg and Plyushch: when the USSR has the whole penitentiary and police apparatus, which could take charge of anybody, and which is perfect in itself, why do they use psychiatry?
* G. T. Jeverdan, G. I. Rusu, and V. Antonescu, " Experiments using the Foucault pendulum during the solar eclipse of 15 February 1961 ," Biblical Astronomer 1 ( 55 ), 18 – 20 ( 1981 ).
( According to Foucault torture could occur during the investigation, because partial proofs meant partial guilt.
Sexuality for example, Foucault argues, far from having been reduced to silence during the Victorian Era, was in fact subjected to a " sexuality Dispositif " ( or " mechanism "), which incites and even forced the subject to speak about their sex.
Foucault then reads into Robert Castel's work ; The Psychiatric Order, an essential read according to Foucault, where the techniques were finally finalised during the 18th century of this absolute global project which was directed towards the whole of society.
Foucault manages to trace this anomaly through the subject of right ( known as consent of the governed the theory of right of that legal theorists of the 18th century tried to establish during their legal discourse ) which did receive a great deal of attention because of what was perceived at the time of problems regarding the sovereign's power.

Foucault and interpretation
In the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text.
It is this distinction between producing a written work and producing the interpretation or meaning in a written work that both Barthes and Foucault are interested in.
Following an interpretation of power similar to that of Machiavelli, Foucault defines power as immaterial, as a " certain type of relation between individuals " that has to do with complex strategic social positions that relate to the subject's ability to control its environment and influence those around itself.
Foucault adopted many of the theories of the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud ( 1856 – 1939 ), undertaking psychoanalytical interpretation of his dreams and making friends undergo Rorschach tests.
In an appendix added to the 1972 edition of his History of Madness, Foucault disputed Derrida's interpretation of his work, and accused Derrida of practicing " a historically well-determined little pedagogy [...] which teaches the student that there is nothing outside the text [...].
And, though his poetry was never " theory-driven ", the interpretation and exegesis of some of his more difficult poems has given rise to profound philosophical speculation by thinkers as divergent as Martin Heidegger, Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault and Theodor Adorno.
Michel Foucault also addressed the question of the author in critical interpretation.
Unfortunately, from the classical standpoint investigative work is viewed upon as having difficulty to interpret ; data with no end product isolating power and then man, as either in a position of interpretation by the classical theorists as the final conclusion or man having anthropological characteristics with ancient relic features borrowed from the Pleistocene era which have never altered with additional evolutionary, cultural and biological salient features rather than having a real historical and social character involved. Or to investigate critically this power, with man and his involvement with his interactions with the environment making it impossible to have any rigorous explanation or conclusions. Political systems, or knowledge systems in general, from the classical perspective, become too large to be comprehended interpreting the environment of man as an anachronism ; information and data produced surrounding man as poorly understood viewing historical information as having no, or absence of history. Obviously from the classical point of view, modern research methods ( all from " Social sciences, Sociology, Humanities ") cannot be used to penetrate observation leaving gaps in our knowledge and an accepted taken for granted approach to any analysis. Foucault views this as the exact opposite of rational analysis, with its operations ( power ) as nothing more than a series of contingencies and networks.
Following in the tradition of Michel Foucault, scholars such as Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and David Halperin have argued that various Victorian public discourses, notably the psychiatric and the legal, fostered a designation or invention of the " homosexual " as a distinct category of individuals, a category solidified by the publications of sexologists such as Richard von Krafft-Ebing ( 1840 – 1902 ) and Havelock Ellis ( 1859 – 1939 ), sexologists who provided an almost-pathological interpretation of the phenomenon in rather Essentialist terms, an interpretation that led, before 1910, to hundreds of articles on the subject in The Netherlands, Germany, and elsewhere.

Foucault and because
Literary critics Barthes and Foucault suggest that readers should not rely on or look for the notion of one overarching voice when interpreting a written work, because of the complications inherent with a writer's title of " author.
Such theorists find narrative ( or, following Nietzsche and Foucault, genealogy ) to be a helpful tool for understanding ethics because narrative is always about particular lived experiences in all their complexity rather than the assignment of an idea or norm to separate and individuated actions.
In part because of this rejection of his thesis, Foucault decided to leave Sweden and look for a post elsewhere.
Philosopher Roger Scruton agrued that Foucault was a " fraud " because he exploited known difficulties of philosophy in order to " disguise unexamined premises as hard-won conclusions ".
A Foucault pendulum requires care to set up because imprecise construction can cause additional veering which masks the terrestrial effect.
Historians have usually discounted the importance of the Panopticon because although Bentham drew up the plan, very few were actually built. Foucault claimed that numerous historians had missed the point: the idea of the Panopticon became used in many different settings in diverse ways.
Sociologists became interested in Foucault because of his account of panopticism.
Here ’ s an important distinction: punishment was inflicted on people who had been shown to break the law ; at least you had to have proof the law was broken. But, Foucault argued, why have proof? This was a ploy Foucault considered, proof was far more rigorous and exact in its approach because some form of finality had to be reached, a consensus, of return or recycling of punishment inflicted on those who had very little choice which was a transition from torture and straightforward execution by contrast, panopticism was a form of social control ( and power ) that is inflicted on everyone.
The prisons at Neufchatel, Mettray, and Mettray Netherlands were perfect examples for Foucault, because they, even in their original state, began to show the traits Foucault was searching for.
For Foucault this was the exact opposite because after the Second World War, the war machine that was unleashed was due to the fact that the system of economic rationality had completely broken down and the organisational network of world trade ( world trade starting period 1870 ) and its accompanied trade settlement system had completely become untenable in which trust in the final payment settlement system had completely vanished, settlements of payment of trade were never met ; they were simply not paid, therefore initiating the military machine and the Carl von Clausewitz dream " War is the continuation of politics by other means " precipitating the systematic slaughtering of millions.
Althusser's concept has been roundly confused over the last decades with concepts and thinking associated with Michel Foucault, in part because both thinkers manifest an antihumanist insistence on the secondary status of the subject as mere effect of social relations and not vice versa.

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