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French and Orientalist
The French Orientalist Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy, who had been discussing this work with Åkerblad, received in 1801 from Jean-Antoine Chaptal, French minister of the interior, one of the early lithographic prints of the Rosetta Stone, and realised that the middle text was in this same script.
Said was mainly concerned with literature in the widest sense, especially French literature, and did not cover visual art and Orientalist painting, though others, notably Linda Nochlin, have tried to extend his analysis to art, " with uneven results ".
Delacroix followed up with Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi ( 1827 ), commemorating a siege of the previous year, and the Death of Sardanapalus, inspired by Lord Byron, which although set in antiquity has been credited with beginning the mixture of sex, violence, lassitude and exoticism which runs through much French Orientalist painting.
But Rana Kabbani believes that " French Orientalist painting, as exemplified by the works of Gérôme, may appear more sensual, gaudy, gory and sexually explicit than its British counterpart, but this is a difference of style not substance ...
* Benjamin, Roger Orientalist Aesthetics, Art, Colonialism and French North Africa: 1880-1930, U. of California Press, 2003
There are also recent signs of the reception of phenomenology ( and Heidegger's thought in particular ) within scholarly circles focused on studying the impetus of metaphysics in the history of ideas in Islam and Early Islamic philosophy ; perhaps under the indirect influence of the tradition of the French Orientalist and philosopher Henri Corbin.
The French Orientalist Évariste Lévi-Provençal on the other hand advocated Ibn Hayyān as the supreme Muslim historian of the era ( and the battle ).
* March 30 — David Léon Cahun, French Orientalist and writer ( born 1841 )
* Étienne Hubert ( Arabist ) ( 1567 – 1614 ), French physician, Orientalist and diplomat
Émile Jean-Horace Vernet ( 30 June 1789 – 17 January 1863 ) was a French painter of battles, portraits, and Orientalist Arab subjects.
Étienne Marc Quatremère ( July 12, 1782 – 1857 ) was a French Orientalist.
Eusèbe Renaudot ( July 20, 1646 – September 7, 1720 ) was a French theologian and Orientalist.
While still living in Mulhouse, he discovered the works of René Guénon, the French philosopher and Orientalist, which served to confirm his intellectual intuitions and which provided support for the metaphysical principles he had begun to discover.
Eugène-Melchior, vicomte de Vogüé ( 25 February 1848 – 29 March 1910 ) was a French diplomat, Orientalist, travel writer, archaeologist, philanthropist and literary critic.
* January 17-Horace Vernet, French painter of battles, portraits, and Orientalist Arab subjects ( b. 1789 )
Théodore Chassériau ( September 20, 1819 – October 8, 1856 ) was a French romantic painter noted for his portraits, historical and religious paintings, allegorical murals, and Orientalist images inspired by his travels to Algeria.
Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau ( 19 February 1846 – 15 February 1923 ) was a noted French Orientalist and archaeologist.
* David Léon Cahun ( 1841 – 1900 ), a Jewish French traveler, Orientalist and writer
During the Victorian era, French Orientalist painters such as Jean-Léon Gérôme presented an idealized depiction of female toplessness in Muslim harem baths, while Eugène Delacroix, a French romantic artist, invoked images of liberty as a topless woman.
The French Orientalist Edgard Blochet ( 1870 – 1937 ) argued that some of the folios of the manuscript, including the pictorial series, were an interpolation no earlier than the 10th or 11th century.
Herbert was in his own right a considerable Orientalist, and a linguist who spoke French, Italian, German, Turkish, Arabic, Greek and Albanian as well as English.
* Pierre Amédée Jaubert ( 1779-1847 ), French Orientalist and traveller

French and painting
In its origins and its first golden age, no art owes quite as much to state power as French painting does.
On 30 June 1878, a feast had been arranged in Paris by official decision to honour the French Republic ( the event was commemorated in a painting by Claude Monet ).
The survivors of the sinking of the French ship Méduse in 1816 resorted to cannibalism after four days adrift on a raft and their plight was made famous by Théodore Géricault's painting Raft of the Medusa.
Claude Monet () ( 14 November 18405 December 1926 ) was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting.
Chardin's work had little in common with the Rococo painting that dominated French art in the 18th century.
These humble scenes deal with simple, everyday activities, yet they also have functioned as a source of documentary information about a level of French society not hitherto considered a worthy subject for painting.
David had a huge number of pupils, making him the strongest influence in French art of the early 19th century, especially academic Salon painting.
In 1789, Jacques-Louis David attempted to leave his artistic mark on the historical beginnings of the French Revolution with his painting of The Oath of the Tennis Court.
Nevertheless, this work was important in David's career because it was the first completed painting of the French Revolution, made in less than three months, and a work through which he initiated the regeneration process that would continue with The Death of Marat, David's masterpiece.
For example the term " Flemish Primitives ", now outdated in English but used in French, Flemish and other languages, is a synonym for " Early Netherlandish painting ", and it is not uncommon to see Mosan art categorized as Flemish art.
An influential formulation of the hierarchy of genres, confirming the history painting at the top, was made in 1667 by André Félibien, a historiographer, architect and theoretician of French classicism became the classic statement of the theory for the 18th century: Celui qui fait parfaitement des païsages est au-dessus d ' un autre qui ne fait que des fruits, des fleurs ou des coquilles.
Other artists depicted scenes, regardless of when they occurred, in classical dress and for a long time, especially during the French Revolution, history painting often focused on depictions of the heroic male nude.
Murray attempts to claim that various depictions of humans with horns from European and Indian sources, ranging from the paleolithic French cave painting of " The Sorcerer " to the Indic Pashupati to the modern English Dorset Ooser, are evidence for an unbroken, Europe-wide tradition of worship of a singular Horned God.
The Académie was the preserver of traditional French painting standards of content and style.
The jury's severely worded rejection of Manet's painting appalled his admirers, and the unusually large number of rejected works that year perturbed many French artists.
Exemplifying the French School are the early Avignon Pietà of Enguerrand Quarton ; the anonymous painting of King Jean le Bon ( c. 1360 ), possibly the oldest independent portrait in Western painting to survive from the postclassical era ; Hyacinthe Rigaud's Louis XIV ; Jacques-Louis David's The Coronation of Napoleon ; and Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People.
Sterne painted in Watercolor painting | watercolour by French artist Louis Carrogis Carmontelle, ca.
Of particular note is the Flemish infection at Fontainebleau that combined the eroticism of the French style with a precursor of the vanitas tradition that would dominate seventeenth-century Netherlandish and Flemish painting.
This led to its influence on Napoleon and Girodet's 1805 painting Ossian receiving the Ghosts of the French Heroes ( see above ).
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People ( 1830, Louvre ), a painting created at a time where old and modern political philosophies came into violent conflict. During the Enlightenment period, new theories about what the human was and is and about the definition of reality and the way it was perceived, along with the discovery of other societies in the Americas, and the changing needs of political societies ( especially in the wake of the English Civil War, the American Revolution and the French Revolution ) led to new questions and insights by such thinkers as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Montesquieu and John Locke.
John Watkins Chapman suggested " a Postmodern style of painting " as a way to move beyond French Impressionism.
Picasso met Fernande Olivier, a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris in 1904, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his increased exposure to French painting.
En plein air () is a French expression which means " in the open air ", and is particularly used to describe the act of painting outdoors, which is also called peinture sur le motif (" painting on the ground ") in French.

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