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Given a ring R and a proper ideal I of R ( that is I ≠ R ), I is a maximal ideal of R if any of the following equivalent conditions hold:
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Given and ring
* Given an R-module M, the endomorphism ring of M, denoted End < sub > R </ sub >( M ) is an R-algebra by defining ( r · φ )( x ) = r · φ ( x ).
Given a sample of wood, the variation of the tree ring growths provides not only a match by year, it can also match location because the climate across a continent is not consistent.
Given a ring R and a unit u in R, the map ƒ ( x ) = u < sup >− 1 </ sup > xu is a ring automorphism of R. The ring automorphisms of this form are called inner automorphisms of R. They form a normal subgroup of the automorphism group of R.
Given a ring R and a two-sided ideal I in R, we may define an equivalence relation ~ on R as follows:
Given two such associative unital K-algebras A and B, a unital K-algebra morphism f: A → B is a ring morphism that commutes with the scalar multiplication defined by η, which one may write as
Given a subset V of P < sup > n </ sup >, let I ( V ) be the ideal generated by all homogeneous polynomials vanishing on V. For any projective algebraic set V, the coordinate ring of V is the quotient of the polynomial ring by this ideal.
; Factor ring or quotient ring: Given a ring R and an ideal I of R, the factor ring is the ring formed by the set R / I of cosets
Given a ring R and a subset S, one wants to construct some ring R * and ring homomorphism from R to R *, such that the image of S consists of units ( invertible elements ) in R *.
Given a module M over a ring R, an R endomorphism f of M is called an involution if f < sup > 2 </ sup > is the identity homomorphism on M.
Given a module A over a ring R, and a submodule B of A, the quotient space A / B is defined by the equivalence relation
Given this closure property for CSAs, they form a monoid under tensor product, compatible with Brauer equivalence, and the Brauer classes are all invertible: the inverse class to that of an algebra A is the one containing the opposite algebra A < sup > op </ sup > ( the opposite ring with the same action by K since the image of K → A is in the center of A ).
Given and R
Given a vector v in R < sup > n </ sup > one defines the directional derivative of a smooth map ƒ: R < sup > n </ sup >→ R at a point x by
Given the space X = Spec ( R ) with the Zariski topology, the structure sheaf O < sub > X </ sub > is defined on the D < sub > f </ sub > by setting Γ ( D < sub > f </ sub >, O < sub > X </ sub >) = R < sub > f </ sub >, the localization of R at the multiplicative system
Given two metric spaces ( X, d < sub > X </ sub >) and ( Y, d < sub > Y </ sub >), where d < sub > X </ sub > denotes the metric on the set X and d < sub > Y </ sub > is the metric on set Y ( for example, Y might be the set of real numbers R with the metric d < sub > Y </ sub >( x, y )
# Given u in W and a scalar c in R, if u = ( u < sub > 1 </ sub >, u < sub > 2 </ sub >, 0 ) again, then cu = ( cu < sub > 1 </ sub >, cu < sub > 2 </ sub >, c0 ) = ( cu < sub > 1 </ sub >, cu < sub > 2 </ sub >, 0 ).
Given a subset S in R < sup > n </ sup >, a vector field is represented by a vector-valued function V: S → R < sup > n </ sup > in standard Cartesian coordinates ( x < sub > 1 </ sub >, ..., x < sub > n </ sub >).
: Given two sets, A and T, of equal size, together with a weight function C: A × T → R. Find a bijection f: A → T such that the cost function:
Given and proper
* Named entity recognition ( NER ): Given a stream of text, determine which items in the text map to proper names, such as people or places, and what the type of each such name is ( e. g. person, location, organization ).
Given proper combustion chamber design, pre-ignition can generally be eliminated by proper spark plug selection, proper fuel / air mixture adjustment, and periodic cleaning of the combustion chambers.
Given the abnormalities of the microvasculature and other side effects of diabetes, these wounds take a long time to heal and require a specialized treatment approach for proper healing.
Using tensor calculus, proper time is more rigorously defined in general relativity as follows: Given a spacetime which is a pseudo-Riemannian manifold mapped with a coordinate system and equipped with a corresponding metric tensor, the proper time experienced in moving between two events along a timelike path P is given by the line integral
Given the proper conditions, theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed.
Given that the chelandia appear originally to have been oared horse-transports, this would imply differences in construction between the chelandion and the dromōn proper, terms which otherwise are often used indiscriminately in literary sources.
Given a proper language, programs, including operating system servers, could import multiple interfaces and combine them as if they were objects native to that language — notably C ++.
Given the delicate nature of their missions, RENEA reverted to " proper " sniper rifles and currently employs SAKO TRG-22 and TRG-42 rifles.
Given a complete Boolean algebra B there is a Boolean-valued model denoted by V < sup > B </ sup >, which is the Boolean-valued analogue of the von Neumann universe V. ( Strictly speaking, V < sup > B </ sup > is a proper class, so we need to reinterpret what it means to be a model appropriately.
Given and ideal
Given two fractional ideals I and J, one defines their product IJ as the set of all finite sums: the product IJ is again a fractional ideal.
Given a subset V of A < sup > n </ sup >, we define I ( V ) to be the ideal of all functions vanishing on V:
Given a homogeneous prime ideal P of, let X be a subset of P < sup > n </ sup >( k ) consisting of all roots of polynomials in P .< ref > The definition makes sense since if and only if for any nonzero λ in k .</ ref > Here we show X admits a structure of variety by showing locally it is an affine variety.
Given that we are only interested in what happens on shell, we would often take the quotient by the ideal generated by the Euler-Lagrange equations, or in other words, consider the equivalence class of functionals / flows which agree on shell.
Given ideal conditions, females can have up to five litters per year although reproduction becomes depressed in summer and ceases altogether in times of drought.
Given his spirituality, Boulogne-sur-Mer may have been an ideal choice for a home: in addition to its fine churches, the city also contained numerous religious schools and charitable organizations.
" Given the gift of this " divinization " in grace, " a new principle of energy ," and with the support of " Christ's family ," the Church, Escrivá states that the difficult ideal of becoming a saint, another Christ, is " also easy.