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Given a vector space V over a field K, the span of a set S ( not necessarily finite ) is defined to be the intersection W of all subspaces of V which contain S. W is referred to as the subspace spanned by S, or by the vectors in S. Conversely, S is called a spanning set of W.
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Given and vector
Given any vector space V over a field F, the dual space V * is defined as the set of all linear maps ( linear functionals ).
Given a basis of a vector space, every element of the vector space can be expressed uniquely as a finite linear combination of basis vectors.
Given a vector space V and a quadratic form g an explicit matrix representation of the Clifford algebra can be defined as follows.
Given a vector v in R < sup > n </ sup > one defines the directional derivative of a smooth map ƒ: R < sup > n </ sup >→ R at a point x by
Given any vector space V over K we can construct the tensor algebra T ( V ) of V. The tensor algebra is characterized by the fact:
Given that this is a plane wave, each vector represents the magnitude and direction of the electric field for an entire plane that is perpendicular to the axis.
Given a normalized light vector l ( pointing from the light source toward the surface ) and a normalized plane normal vector n, one can work out the normalized reflected and refracted rays:
Given the dimensions of the ellipsoid, the conversion from lat / lon / height-above-ellipsoid coordinates to X-Y-Z is straightforward — calculate the X-Y-Z for the given lat-lon on the surface of the ellipsoid and add the X-Y-Z vector that is perpendicular to the ellipsoid there and has length equal to the point's height above the ellipsoid.
Given a subset S in R < sup > n </ sup >, a vector field is represented by a vector-valued function V: S → R < sup > n </ sup > in standard Cartesian coordinates ( x < sub > 1 </ sub >, ..., x < sub > n </ sub >).
Given two C < sup > k </ sup >- vector fields V, W defined on S and a real valued C < sup > k </ sup >- function f defined on S, the two operations scalar multiplication and vector addition
Given a differentiable manifold M, a vector field on M is an assignment of a tangent vector to each point in M. More precisely, a vector field F is a mapping from M into the tangent bundle TM so that is the identity mapping
Given a vector x ∈ V and y * ∈ W *, then the tensor product y * ⊗ x corresponds to the map A: W → V given by
Given ω = ( xθ, yθ, zθ ), with v = ( x, y, z ) a unit vector, the correct skew-symmetric matrix form of ω is
Given two column vectors, their dot product can also be obtained by multiplying the transpose of one vector with the other vector and extracting the unique coefficient of the resulting 1 × 1 matrix.
Given and space
* Given any Banach space X, the continuous linear operators A: X → X form a unitary associative algebra ( using composition of operators as multiplication ); this is a Banach algebra.
* Given any topological space X, the continuous real-or complex-valued functions on X form a real or complex unitary associative algebra ; here the functions are added and multiplied pointwise.
Given a finite dimensional real quadratic space with quadratic form, the geometric algebra for this quadratic space is the Clifford algebra Cℓ ( V, Q ).
Given these two assumptions, the coordinates of the same event ( a point in space and time ) described in two inertial reference frames are related by a Galilean transformation.
Given infinite space, there would, in fact, be an infinite number of Hubble volumes identical to ours in the universe.
Given a set of training examples of the form, a learning algorithm seeks a function, where is the input space and
Given a point x in a topological space, let N < sub > x </ sub > denote the set of all neighbourhoods containing x.
Given the date of his publication and the widespread, permanent distribution of his work, it appears that he should be regarded as the originator of the concept of space sailing by light pressure, although he did not develop the concept further.
Given an arbitrary topological space ( X, τ ) there is a universal way of associating a completely regular space with ( X, τ ).
Given any embedding of a Tychonoff space X in a compact Hausdorff space K the closure of the image of X in K is a compactification of X.
Given a completely regular space X there is usually more than one uniformity on X that is compatible with the topology of X.
Given the space X = Spec ( R ) with the Zariski topology, the structure sheaf O < sub > X </ sub > is defined on the D < sub > f </ sub > by setting Γ ( D < sub > f </ sub >, O < sub > X </ sub >) = R < sub > f </ sub >, the localization of R at the multiplicative system
Given and V
Given a set S with a partial order ≤, an infinite descending chain is a chain V that is a subset of S upon which ≤ defines a total order such that V has no least element, that is, an element m such that for all elements n in V it holds that m ≤ n.
Given a class function G: V → V, there exists a unique transfinite sequence F: Ord → V ( where Ord is the class of all ordinals ) such that
Given a topological space X, denote F the set of filters on X, x ∈ X a point, V ( x ) ∈ F the neighborhood filter of x, A ∈ F a particular filter and the set of filters finer than A and that converge to x.
A Clifford algebra Cℓ ( V, Q ) is a unital associative algebra over K together with a linear map satisfying for all defined by the following universal property: Given any associative algebra A over K and any linear map such that
Given and over
" Given its general release in January 1931, City Lights proved to be a popular and financial success — eventually grossing over $ 5 million.
Given the large number of U. S. military personnel and their dependents residing in Europe, it was expected that over 7 % of donors would be deferred due to the policy.
Given that the ColecoVision could produce near arcade-quality ports, industry magazines like Electronic Games were unanimous in their enthusiasm over the console.
Given that the dispute with Pizarro over Cuzco had kept intensifying, Almagro spent a great deal of time and money equipping a company of 500 men for a new exploration south of Peru.
* Given a transformation group G over A, there exists an equivalence relation ~ over A, whose equivalence classes are the orbits of G.
Given these origins, there have been various suggestions over the years to rename the town ( for example, to " Invernevis ").
Given a field K, the corresponding general linear groupoid GL < sub >*</ sub >( K ) consists of all invertible matrices whose entries range over K. Matrix multiplication interprets composition.
Given the differences of opinion within the Lord Aberdeen cabinet over the direction of foreign policy with regard to relations between Britain and the French under Napoleon III, it is not surprising that debate raged within the government as Louis Bonaparte, now assuming the title of Emperor Napoleon III of France.
On poverty, Hoover said that " Given the chance to go forward with the policies of the last eight years, we shall soon with the help of God, be in sight of the day when poverty will be banished from this nation ", and promised, " We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land ," but within months, the Stock Market Crash of 1929 occurred, and the world's economy spiraled downward into the Great Depression.
Given the extraordinary competition and technological craftsmanship required for top search engine placement, the implication of the term " search engine optimization " has deteriorated over the last decade.
Given that the cost of replacing an executive can run over 100 % of his or her annual salary, any investment of time and energy in re-recruitment will likely pay for itself many times over if it helps a business retain just a handful of key players that would have otherwise left.
Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x, and its derivative ƒ < nowiki > '</ nowiki >, we begin with a first guess x < sub > 0 </ sub > for a root of the function f. Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x < sub > 1 </ sub > is
The Fascist government had direct rule only over the Benadir territory Given the defeat of the Dervish movement in the early 1920s and the rise of fascism in Europe, on 10 July 1925, Mussolini gave the green light to De Vecchi to start the takeover of the north-eastern sultanates.
Given a particular wing and its velocity through the air, debates over which mathematical approach is the most convenient to use can be misperceived by novices as differences of opinion about the basic principles of flight.
" Given their 3: 00 a. m. start time and non-inclusion ( at frontman John Fogerty's insistence ) in the Woodstock film, members have expressed bitterness over their experiences at the famed festival.
Given two affine spaces and, over the same field, a function is an affine map if and only if for every family of weighted points in such that
Given that radio communication channels are allocated by agencies such as the Federal Communication Commission giving a prescribed ( maximum ) bandwidth, the advantage of QPSK over BPSK becomes evident: QPSK transmits twice the data rate in a given bandwidth compared to BPSK-at the same BER.