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Henry and VII
* 1503 – King James IV of Scotland marries Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII of England at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh, Scotland.
* 1509 – Henry VIII ascends the throne of England on the death of his father, Henry VII.
* 1509 – Henry VII of England ( b. 1457 )
Then, in the Autumn of 1497, Perkin Warbeck tried to usurp the throne from Henry VII.
Gregory VII appeared to have succeeded when the emperor Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor was humiliated at Canossa in 1077.
Henry IV begging forgiveness of Pope Gregory VII at Canossa, the castle of the Countess Matilda, 1077.
The rebellious nobles in Germany who were interested in deposing Henry IV never forgave Pope Gregory VII for what they viewed as treachery.
Henry IV became so filled with hubris over his position, that he renounced Gregory VII and named the bishop of Ravenna pope.
The last words he uttered were, ‘ I have loved justice and hated iniquity, and therefore I die in exile .” Gregory VII must have felt he died in utter failure, and to many of his contemporaries it appeared Henry IV and Antipope Clement III had won.
The victory was as short-lived as that of his father, Henry IV over Gregory VII.
The controversy would surface in the Thomas Becket affair under Henry II of England, the Great Charter of 1217, the Statutes of Mortmain and the battles over Cestui que use of Henry VII of England, and finally come to a head under Henry VIII of England.
The struggle over investiture between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor had dramatized the clash between church and state.
When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry defied him by assuming supremacy over religious matters.
Consequently she was third cousin of her father-in-law, Henry VII of England, and fourth cousin of her mother-in-law Elizabeth of York.
At an early age, Catherine was considered a suitable wife for Arthur, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Henry VII of England and heir to the throne, due to the English ancestry she inherited from her mother Queen Isabella I of Castile.
By means of her mother, Catherine had a stronger legitimate claim to the English throne than King Henry VII himself through the first two wives of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster: Blanche of Lancaster and the Spanish Infanta Constance of Castile.
In contrast, Henry VII was the descendant of Gaunt's third marriage to Katherine Swynford, whose children were born out of wedlock and only legitimised after the death of Constance and the marriage of John to Katherine.
At this point, Henry VII faced the challenge of avoiding the obligation to return her dowry to her father.
Ostensibly, the marriage was delayed until Henry was old enough, but Henry VII procrastinated so much about Catherine's unpaid dowry that it was doubtful if the marriage would ever take place.
While Henry VII and his councillors expected her to be easily manipulated, Catherine went on to prove them wrong.
One of the earliest references to the clavichord in England occurs in the privy-purse expenses of Elizabeth of York, queen of Henry VII, in an entry dated August 1502:

Henry and declared
Authority in the Roman Church is the exertion of that imperium from which England in the 16th century finally and decisively declared its national independence as the alter imperium, the " other empire ", of which Henry VIII declared " This realm of England is an empire " ...
In 1533 their marriage was declared invalid and Henry married Anne on the judgment of clergy in England, without reference to the Pope.
A marriage between Henry and Eleanor's daughter, Marie, had indeed been declared impossible for this very reason.
During the rule of Henry VIII an Act of Parliament declared that ' this realm of England is an Empire ... governed by one Supreme Head and King having the dignity and royal estate of the imperial Crown of the same '.
The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed two and a half years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate.
His will swept aside the Succession to the Crown Act 1543, excluded both Mary and Elizabeth from the succession, and instead declared as his heir Lady Jane Grey, granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister Mary, Duchess of Suffolk.
However, the King of Castile, Henry IV, declared Gibraltar to be Crown property and not the personal property of the Guzman family.
The Pope, in turn, excommunicated the king, declared him deposed and dissolved the oaths of loyalty made to Henry.
The chronicler Orderic Vitalis reports that the old king had declared to Henry: " You in your own time will have all the dominions I have acquired and be greater than both your brothers in wealth and power.
" Ralph Waldo Emerson famously declared ", " Whoso would be a man must be a nonconformist "— a point of view developed at length in both the life and work of ( Henry David ) Thoreau.
In the aftermath of John's death William Marshal was declared the protector of the nine-year-old Henry III.
The solicitor, openly declared in his speech afterward " that he ( Henry Vane ) must be made a public sacrifice.
* 1533 – The marriage of King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon is declared null and void.
In early 1533, Henry married Anne Boleyn, who was pregnant with his child, and in May Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, formally declared the marriage with Catherine void, and the marriage to Anne valid.
Henry broke with the Roman Catholic Church and declared himself head of the Church of England.
German King Henry III intervened, and at the Council of Sutri in December 1046 Benedict IX and Sylvester III were declared deposed while Gregory VI was encouraged to resign, which he did.
Stephen marched rapidly north to York and the planned attack disintegrated, leaving Henry to return to Normandy, where he was declared Duke by his father.
A subsequent proclamation by John of Gaunt's legitimate son, King Henry IV, also recognised the Beauforts ' legitimacy, but declared them ineligible ever to inherit the throne.
When Anne was beheaded, Henry declared Elizabeth an illegitimate child and she would, therefore, not be able to inherit the throne.
Henry, they declared, must make reparation to Gregory and pledge himself to obedience ; and they decided that, if, on the anniversary of his excommunication, he still lay under the ban, the throne should be considered vacant.
* May 23 – King Henry VIII of England's marriage with Catherine of Aragon is declared divorced by the Archbishop Cranmer.
On 23 May 1533 Thomas Cranmer declared Henry and Catherine's marriage null and void ; five days later, he declared Henry and Anne's marriage to be good and valid.

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