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astronomical and telescope
When James Bradley and Samuel Molyneux entered this sphere of astronomical research in 1725, there consequently prevailed much uncertainty whether stellar parallaxes had been observed or not ; and it was with the intention of definitely answering this question that these astronomers erected a large telescope at the house of the latter at Kew.
The Italian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist Galileo Galilei ( 1564 – 1642 ) was the central figure in the Scientific Revolution and famous for his support for Copernianism, his astronomical discoveries, and his improvement of the telescope.
* Galileo Galilei ( 1564 – 1642 ) improved the telescope, with which he made several important astronomical discoveries, including the four largest moons of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, and the rings of Saturn, and made detailed observations of sunspots.
In 1783 he gave Caroline a telescope, and she began to make astronomical discoveries in her own right, particularly comets.
Ever since Galileo took a Dutch invention and adapted it to astronomical use, astronomical telescope making has been an evolving discipline.
Much larger binoculars have been made by amateur telescope makers, essentially using two refracting or reflecting astronomical telescopes.
He not only describes what the user of a small telescope will see, but also includes much fascinating astronomical, mythological, and historical lore.
Smyth moved to Stone near Aylesbury in 1842, and still had the opportunity to use the telescope since his residence at St. John's Lodge was not far from its new location, and he performed a large number of additional astronomical observations from 1839 to 1859.
Using astronomical observations obtained from the new telescope, Langley devised a precise time standard – including time zones – that became known as the Allegheny Time System.
A breakthrough in astronomical photography came in 1883, when amateur astronomer Andrew Ainslie Common used the dry plate process to record several images of the same nebula in exposures up to 60 minutes with a 36-inch ( 91 cm ) reflecting telescope that he constructed in the backyard of his home in Ealing, outside London.
Piggyback astronomical photography is a method where a camera / lens is mounted on an equatorially mounted astronomical telescope.
During astronomical observations the enclosure and transporter are mechanically isolated from the telescope, to ensure that no vibrations compromise the data collected.
An astronomical interferometer consists of two or more separate telescopes that combine their signals, offering a resolution equivalent to that of a telescope of diameter equal to the largest separation between its individual elements.
The telescope enclosure building is also shaped to minimize air turbulence, to improve the quality of astronomical images.
Another set of photographs of the nebula in 1883 saw breakthrough in astronomical photography when amateur astronomer Andrew Ainslie Common used the dry plate process to record several images in exposures up to 60 minutes with a 36-inch ( 91 cm ) reflecting telescope that he constructed in the backyard of his home in Ealing, outside London.
In astronomy, first light is the first use of a telescope ( or, in general, a new instrument ) to take an astronomical image after it has been constructed.
Despite this, a first light is always a moment of great excitement, both for the people who designed and built the telescope, and for the astronomical community.
Two men who learned of Jansky's 1933 discovery were of great influence on the later development of the new study of radio astronomy: one was Grote Reber, a radio engineer who singlehandedly built a radio telescope in his Illinois back yard in 1937 and did the first systematic survey of astronomical radio waves.
advanced type of astronomical telescope, now used in virtually all research telescopes.
This broadening is due to the optics in the telescope as well as to astronomical seeing ( twinkling ).
During her leisure hours she occupied herself with observing the sky with a focal length Newtonian telescope and by this means detected a number of astronomical objects during the years 1783 – 87, including most notably an independent discovery of M110 ( NGC 205 ), the second companion of the Andromeda Galaxy.
A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope.

astronomical and is
therefore, only with precise foreknowledge of the line frequencies is an astronomical search for the radio spectra of these molecules feasible.
It is the basis for Coordinated Universal Time ( UTC ), which is used for civil timekeeping all over the Earth's surface, and for Terrestrial Time, which is used for astronomical calculations.
A range of astronomy software is available and used by amateur astronomers, including software that generates maps of the sky, software to assist with astrophotography, observation scheduling software, and software to perform various calculations pertaining to astronomical phenomena.
There is a large number of amateur astronomical societies around the world that serve as a meeting point for those interested in amateur astronomy, whether they be people who are actively interested in observing or " armchair astronomers " who may simply be interested in the topic.
They are grouped with the outer bodies — centaurs, Neptune trojans, and trans-Neptunian objects — as minor planets, which is the term preferred in astronomical circles.
In astronomy, a given point on the celestial sphere ( that is, the apparent position of an astronomical object ) can be identified using any of several astronomical coordinate systems, where the references vary according to the particular system.
An astronomical unit ( abbreviated as AU, au, a. u., or ua ) is a unit of length equal to exactly or approximately the mean Earth – Sun distance.
However, the use of AU to refer to the astronomical unit is widespread.
The astronomical constant whose value is one astronomical unit is referred to as unit distance and is given the symbol A.
This value of the astronomical unit had to be obtained experimentally and so is was not known exactly.
The time to traverse an AU is found to be τ < sub > A </ sub > =, resulting in the astronomical unit in metres as c < sub > 0 </ sub > τ < sub > A </ sub > =.
These measured positions are then compared with those calculated by the laws of celestial mechanics: an assembly of calculated positions is often referred to as an ephemeris, in which distances are commonly calculated in astronomical units.
The comparison of the ephemeris with the measured positions leads to a value for the speed of light in astronomical units, which is AU / d ( TDB ).
As the speed of light in meters per second ( c < sub > 0 </ sub >) is fixed in the International System of Units, this measurement of the speed of light in AU / d ( c < sub > AU </ sub >) also determines the value of the astronomical unit in meters ( A ):
The best current ( 2009 ) estimate of the International Astronomical Union ( IAU ) for the value of the astronomical unit in meters is A = m, based on a comparison of JPL and IAA – RAS ephemerides.
With the definitions used before 2012, the astronomical unit was dependent on the heliocentric gravitational constant, that is the product of the gravitational constant G and the solar mass M < sub >☉</ sub >.
Only the product is required to calculate planetary positions for an ephemeris, which explains why ephemerides are calculated in astronomical units and not in SI units.

astronomical and now
Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the twentieth century development of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity and better astronomical observations of extremely distant objects.
These form part of the Europe-wide Megalithic culture which also produced Stonehenge in Wiltshire, and which pre-historians now interpret as showing sophisticated use of astronomical observations.
The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest ( in Greek, Ἡ Μεγάλη Σύνταξις, " The Great Treatise ", originally Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις, " Mathematical Treatise ").
The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest ( in Greek, Ἡ Μεγάλη Σύνταξις, " The Great Treatise ", originally Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις, " Mathematical Treatise ").
One is the astronomical treatise that is now known as the Almagest ( in Greek Η μεγάλη Σύνταξις, " The Great Treatise ").
Astronomical equipment companies also now offer a wide range of purpose-built astronomical CCD cameras complete with hardware and processing software.
Jost Bürgi and Anton Eisenhoit | Antonius Eisenhoit: Armillary sphere with astronomical clock, made 1585 in Kassel, now at Nordiska Museet in Stockholm
Its orbital period changed from 43 years to about 6 years, and its perihelion is now about 1. 59 AU ( astronomical unit ).
When one or both of these arrays are combined with one or more space-based VLBI antennas such as HALCA ( previously ) and now with RadioAstron ( Spektr-R ), the resolution obtained is higher than any other astronomical instrument, capable of imaging the sky with a level of detail measured in microarcseconds.
In Europe, six radio telescopes of the European VLBI Network ( EVN ) are now connected with Gigabit per second links via their National Research Networks and the Pan-European research network GEANT2, and the first astronomical experiments using this new technique have been successfully conducted.
The Gaussian gravitational constant is now an IAU defining constant used to define the astronomical unit.
Navigation aids have varied over time from astronomical observation, to mechanical mechanisms, and more recently analog and digital computer devices that now rely on GPS systems.
TDB according to the 2006 redefinition can now be treated as equivalent, for practical astronomical purposes, to the long-established JPL ephemeris time argument T < sub > eph </ sub > as implemented in JPL Development Ephemeris DE405 ( in use as the official basis for planetary and lunar ephemerides in the Astronomical Almanac, editions for 2003 and succeedng years ).
This paper was rediscovered in the 1970s and is now recognised as anticipating several astronomical ideas that had been considered to be 20th century innovations.
Through a number of modifications, the astronomical system of units now explicitly recognizes the consequences of general relativity, which is a necessary addition to the International System of Units in order to accurately treat astronomical data.
Literature searches that previously would have taken days or weeks can now be carried out in seconds via the ADS search engine, custom-built for astronomical needs.
ADS now has agreements with almost all astronomical journals, who supply abstracts.
The database initially contained only astronomical references, but has now grown to incorporate three databases, covering astronomy
The tower is now lit at night ( excepting evenings when the lighting interferes with on-campus astronomical observances ), a tradition begun on September 22, 2002 to commemorate Trinity's 60th anniversary in San Antonio.
Similarly, Astro-Theology includes several newly identified nebulae ( this was the name used at the time for all extended astronomical objects: some of his nebulae are what we would now call star clusters ).
The Culgoora site later became the home for the Paul Wild Observatory, opened in 1988 and now a site for several major astronomical facilities.
* 1771 – Charles Messier: Publishes catalogue of astronomical objects ( Messier Objects ) now known to include galaxies, star clusters, and nebulae.

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