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In 1945, Vannevar Bush described a hypertext-like device called the " memex " in his The Atlantic Monthly article As We May Think.
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1945 and Vannevar
In 1945, Engelbart had read with interest Vannevar Bush's article " As We May Think ", a call to action for making knowledge widely available as a national peacetime grand challenge.
In 1945, Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called " As We May Think ", about a futuristic proto-hypertext device he called a Memex.
However, according to Nelson, the concept of transclusion had already formed part of his 1965 description of hypertext ; he also interprets the notion of " trails " in Vannevar Bush's 1945 essay As We May Think as describing transclusion rather than hyperlinks.
The idea of using computers to search for relevant pieces of information was popularized in the article As We May Think by Vannevar Bush in 1945.
The memex ( a portmanteau of " memory " and " index ") is the name of the hypothetical proto-hypertext system that Vannevar Bush described in his 1945 The Atlantic Monthly article " As We May Think " ( AWMT ).
He credits James Goodby ( of the Brookings Institution ) with tracing what he considers the earliest known English-language use soon after the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ( although it is not quite verbatim ): a communique from a 15 November 1945, meeting of Harry Truman, Clement Attlee and Mackenzie King ( probably drafted by Vannevar Bush – or so Bush claimed in 1970 ) referred to " weapons adaptable to mass destruction ".
For example, wearable computer imaging systems were described by Vannevar Bush in his essay " As We May Think " in the Atlantic Monthly in July 1945 and wearable devices for timing the trajectory of the balls on a roulette table were built and used by Ed Thorp and Claude Shannon in 1961.
The classic example is Vannevar Bush's July 1945 essay " As We May Think ", which inspired Douglas Engelbart and later Ted Nelson to develop the modern workstation and hypertext technology.
; 1945: Vannevar Bush — head of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, intimately connected with the Manhattan Project, and personal acquaintance of the President — was asked by President Roosevelt in 1944 to write a report on what should be done in the postwar to further foster government commitment to science and technology.
Vannevar Bush, director of the office of scientific research and development for the U. S. government in July 1945, wrote " Science is a proper concern of government " Vannevar Bush directed the forerunner of the National Science Foundation, and his writings directly inspired researchers to invent the hyperlink and the computer mouse.
Following ideas inspired by Vannevar Bush's famous 1945 article " As We May Think ", Garfield undertook the development of a comprehensive citation index showing the propagation of scientific thinking ; he started the Institute for Scientific Information in 1955.
1945 and Bush
Bush describes the memex and other visions of " As We May Think " as projections of technology known in the 1930s and 1940s in the spirit of Jules Verne or Arthur C. Clarke's 1945 proposal to orbit geosynchronous satellites for global telecommunication.
In 1945, Bush published As We May Think in which he predicted that " wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified ".
In Science, The Endless Frontier, his 1945 report to the President of the United States, Bush called for an expansion of government support for science, and he pressed for the creation of the National Science Foundation.
Former President George H. W. Bush was stationed at the base for training during 1945 for about two months.
* Former U. S. President George H. W. Bush and his wife Barbara Bush lived in Trenton for two months in the spring of 1945 while Bush was stationed at nearby Naval Air Station Grosse Ile.
Bush issued his report to President Harry S. Truman in July 1945, entitled Science — The Endless Frontier.
She met George Herbert Walker Bush at age 16, and the two married in 1945, while he was on leave during his deployment as a Naval officer in World War II.
Besides Griffin winning consecutive Heismans at Ohio State, three other programs had two different players win the Heisman Trophy in consecutive years: Yale ( 1936 – 37 ), Army ( 1945 – 46 ), and Southern California ( USC ) ( 2004 – 05, though Reggie Bush voluntarily forfeited his 2005 award in September 2010 and sent the trophy back to the Heisman Trust ).
Larry Dean Thompson ( born November 15, 1945 ) is an American lawyer, most notable for his service as deputy Attorney General of the United States under United States President George W. Bush until August 2003.
* Michael Dutton Douglas ( 1945 – 1963 ), killed in a car accident involving future First Lady Laura Bush
The second USS Bush ( DD 529 ) was a Fletcher class destroyer that served during World War II from 1943 to 1945.
* Chip Hawkes — born Leonard Donald Stanley Hawkes, 2 November 1945, Shepherd's Bush, West London — Bassist / Vocalist ( from 1965 ).
1945 and described
Following the Reichswehr purge of 1938, Hitler could be described as the absolute dictator of Germany until his suicide in 1945.
In a 1945 Wireless World article the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke ( 1917 – 2008 ) described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications.
The Reverend W. V. Awdry's The Railway Series ( 1945 – 72 ) story Henry's Sneeze, originally described soot-covered boys with the phrase " as black as niggers ".
Wright's semi-autobiographical Black Boy ( 1945 ) described his early life from Roxie through his move to Chicago, his clashes with his Seventh-day Adventist family, his troubles with white employers and social isolation.
The audience participation show Let Yourself Go ( 1944 – 1945 ) could best be described as slapstick radio with studio audience members acting out long suppressed urges ( often directed at host Berle ).
Her 1945 scat recording of " Flying Home " arranged by Vic Schoen would later be described by The New York Times as " one of the most influential vocal jazz records of the decade .... Where other singers, most notably Louis Armstrong, had tried similar improvisation, no one before Miss Fitzgerald employed the technique with such dazzling inventiveness.
In the post – Cold War ( 1945 – 1991 ) world, the French Socialist politician Hubert Védrine described the USA as a hegemonic hyperpower, because of its unilateral military actions worldwide, especially against Iraq ; while the US political scientists John Mearsheimer and Joseph Nye counter that the USA is not a true hegemon because it has neither the financial nor the military resources to impose a proper, formal, global hegemony.
By the time the Allied forces arrived at the end of October 1945, the pemuda foothold in Surabaya city was described as " a strong unified fortress ".
Consequently, the international system prior to 1945 can be described as multi-polar, with power being shared among Great powers.
The British Film Yearbook for 1945 described his work as " one of the most valuable facets of British propaganda ".
Potočnik's book described geostationary satellites ( first put forward by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky ) and discussed communication between them and the ground using radio, but fell short of the idea of using satellites for mass broadcasting and as telecommunications relays ( developed by Arthur C. Clarke in his Wireless World article of 1945 ).
Literary critic and philosopher Kenneth Burke first coined and described the expression " scapegoat mechanism " in his books Permanence and Change ( 1935 ), and A Grammar of Motives ( 1945 ).
Bill Mauldin described the time Truscott gave the address on Memorial Day, May 31, 1945, in the military cemetery at Nettuno, outside Anzio: " He turned his back on the assembled windbags and sparklers and talked to the crosses in the cemetery, quietly, apologizing, and then walked away without looking around.
The story of the discovery of the Nag Hammadi library in 1945 has been described as ' exciting as the contents of the find itself '.
Arthur C. Clarke, for example, sufficiently described the concept of a communications satellite ( a geostationary satellite used as a telecommunications relay ) in a 1945 paper that it was not considered patentable in 1954 when it was developed ( independently ) at Bell Labs.
First described in Murray Leinster's 1945 novella " First Contact ", the translator's purpose is to offer an instant translation of any language.
The atomic bomb cloud over Nagasaki, Japan was described in The Times of London of 13 August 1945 as a " huge mushroom of smoke and dust.
The acting rector, Erich Maschke during the war described the continuation of the university in a memo on May 11, 1945 announcing the vote for a new rector:
American Private First Class Harold Porter, a medic with the 116th Evacuation Hospital, described his experiences and sensations in and around them camp in vivid detail, in a letter to his parents dated 7 May 1945.