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In European feudal states, " ownership " of land, that is to say allodial possession, was generally restricted to monarchs and was thus rarely an operative principle.
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European and feudal
Outside a European context, the concept of feudalism is normally used only by analogy ( called semi-feudal ), most often in discussions of feudal Japan under the shoguns, and sometimes medieval and Gondarine Ethiopia.
Industry in the sense of manufacturing became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, which upset previous mercantile and feudal economies through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the steel and coal production.
With the arrival of Italian trading firms, the creation of the military orders, and immigration by European knights, artisans, and farmers, the affairs of the Kingdom improved and a feudal society developed, similar to but distinct from the society the crusaders knew in Europe.
The use of grand-sounding titles, awards, honours, and heraldic symbols derived from European feudal traditions, the conduct of " wars " ( often known as recwars ) and " diplomacy " with other micronations, and simulated continents or planets are common manifestations of their activities.
The social transformations wrought in these lands brought them into the fuller orbit of European feudal politics.
The reign of Peter the Third is cast by Palmer as progressive for its focus on transforming economically developed feudal Russia to a more advanced European state.
The original, but now less common use of the word, originated in the application of the Latin word princeps, from Roman, more precisely Byzantine law, and the classical system of government that was the European feudal society.
European dynasties usually awarded apanages to princes of the blood, typically attached to a feudal noble title, such as Britain's royal dukes, the Dauphin in France, the Count of Flanders in Belgium, and the Count of Syracuse in Sicily.
In most medieval Western European feudal fiefs, females ( such as daughters and sisters ) were allowed to succeed, brothers failing.
The empire was formed and administrated on Western European feudal principles, incorporating some elements of the Byzantine bureaucracy.
The Dutch Vice-Chairman of the Permanent Mandates Commission, M. Van Rees, argued that ' the disturbances of August 1929, as well as the previous disturbances of a similar character, were, in brief, only a special aspect of the resistance offered everywhere in the East, with its traditional and feudal civilisation, to the invasion of a European civilisation introduced by a Western administration ' but concluded that in his view ' the responsibility for what had happened must lie with the religious and political leaders of the Arabs '.
It is argued that the rising feudal class structure of the European Middle Ages derived ultimately from the use of stirrups: " Few inventions have been so simple as the stirrup, but few have had so catalytic an influence on history.
The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th-and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
In European history, particular significance is attached to the long transition from the feudal institutions of the Middle Ages to the modern institutions, which govern contemporary life.
In 2008 ( partially due to legal activity by the Barclay brothers ), Sark dismantled its 443-year-old feudal system of government on the premise that this was necessary to comply with the European Convention on Human Rights.
* Konostaulos – Greek form of Latin Comes stabuli ' count of the stable ' and various European feudal titles such as English " constable " – the chief of the Frankish mercenaries.
In medieval Hungary the system of gyepű and gyepűelve, effective until the mid-13th century, can be considered as marches even though in its organisation it shows major differences from Western European feudal marches.
After the Russian revolution of 1905, Leon Trotsky argued that unlike the French revolution of 1789 and the European Revolutions of 1848 against absolutism, the capitalist class would never organise a revolution in Russia to overthrow absolutism, and that this task fell to the working class who, liberating the peasantry from their feudal yoke, would then immediately pass on to the socialist tasks and seek a " permanent revolution " to achieve international socialism.
The aristocracy of some cultures, as in the European feudal era tended to use child marriage as a method to secure political ties.
These latifundia had been of great importance economically, until the long-distance shipping of wine and oil, grain and garum disintegrated, but extensive lands controlled in a single pair of hands still constituted power: it can be argued that the latifundia formed part of the economic basis of the European social feudal system.
Under this system, Muang leaders were granted something equivalent to European ' fiefdom ' and Thai feudal titles as ' governor ', having full right of ruling over their towns.
His piety and culture brought peace to his vast feudum and he tried to stem the tide of feudal warfare then destroying the unity of many European nations by supporting the current Peace and Truce of God movements initiated by Pope and Church.
The Sultan granted officers fiefs with local peasants subjected to their rule in an arrangement similar to European feudal fiefs.
Lamellar armour is generally associated with the armour worn by the samurai class of feudal Japan, although it came to Japan from Korea. Lamellar armour is also associated with Mongolia, Eastern Russia, the tribes of Siberia and the Sarmatians, evidence of lamellar armour has also been found in various European countries.
The Scottish Court of the Lord Lyon King of Arms has ruled that a Scottish feudal baron is the equal of a Continental baron who is the chief of his family ( in some European nations all males take the title but only the head or chief of the family has a superior rank ).
European and states
Thus, theory and doctrine applicable among the great nations and the smaller European states did not really comfortably fit less developed and less powerful societies elsewhere.
The European customs on which international law was based were to become, by force and fiat, the customs that others were to accept as law if they were to join this community as sovereign states.
Hall, for example, was quite explicit on this point when he said states outside European civilization must formally enter into the circle of law-governed countries.
While Durkheim and others examined the state of modern societies, Mauss and his collaborators ( such as Henri Hubert and Robert Hertz ) drew on ethnography and philology to analyze societies that were not as ' differentiated ' as European nation states.
During this same period, slave-holding border states had more free African-Americans and European immigrants than the lower South, which increased Southern fears that slavery was threatened with rapid extinction in this area.
* 1991 – The European Community recognizes the independence of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
* 2003 – The Treaty of Accession is signed in Athens admitting 10 new member states to the European Union.
The International Charlemagne Prize of Aachen was awarded in the year 2000 to the President of the United States, Bill Clinton, for his special personal contribution to cooperation with the states of Europe, for the preservation of peace, freedom, democracy and human rights in Europe, and for his support of the enlargement of the European Union.
) Hilton also claims a Roman Catholic monarch would therefore be unable to be crowned by the Archbishop of Canterbury and points to the examples of European states that have similar religious provisions for their monarchs: Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, whose constitutions compel their monarchs to be Lutherans, the Netherlands, the constitution of which insists its monarchs be members of the Protestant House of Orange, and Belgium, which has a constitution that provides for the succession to be through Roman Catholic houses.
Indeed, the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in Article 6 requires these features in the legal systems of its signatory states.
During the next century Aegina was one of the three principal states trading at the emporium of Naucratis, and it was the only state of European Greece that had a share in this factory.
During the process of the enlargement of the European Union, the acquis was divided into 31 chapters for the purpose of negotiation between the EU and the candidate member states for the fifth enlargement ( the ten that joined in 2004 plus Romania and Bulgaria which joined in 2007 ).
It should foster mutual regional trade among the member states, as well as with the US and Canada, the Pacific Union, the African Union, and the European Union.
In the United States there is a proportionally limited tax on alcopops relative to those sold in Europe, although some states are considering legislation to bring their tax levels closer to the European model, which is credited with limiting consumption by youth.
Future prospects are tied to the country's increasingly important integration with the European Union member states.
Soviet-style centralised planning in five-year blocks had more immediate benefits there than in the other European states where it was first applied in the early 1950s.
Unlike the communist parties in most other East European states, the BCP ( changing its name to Bulgarian Socialist Party ) retained majority power after the transition in Bulgaria by winning the first free national elections in June 1990.
However, Bulgaria ranks 51st in the Ease of Doing Business rank list, higher than most other Eastern European states, and 28th in the Economic Freedom of the World index, outperforming the Netherlands and South Korea.
Bulgaria also has the lowest personal and corporate income tax rates in the EU, as well as the second lowest public debt of all European Union member states at 16. 2 % of GDP in 2010.
* The usual Internet speeds are higher than in many European states, with 1 MB / s being the lowest limit.
The European Union fully implemented the Basel Ban in its Waste Shipment Regulation ( EWSR ), making it legally binding in all EU member states.
The developments that led to the First Balkan War did not go unnoticed by the Great Powers, but although there was an official consensus between the European Powers over the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire, which led to a stern warning to the Balkan states, unofficially each of them took a different diplomatic approach due to their conflicting interests in the area.
These multilateral treaties have been ratified by nearly all countries, and international organizations such as the European Union or World Trade Organization require their member states to comply with them.
In spite of the rather slow post-recession recovery, in terms of income per capita Croatia is still ahead of some European Union member states such as Bulgaria, Romania and Latvia.