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translation and ancient
With the loss of the study of ancient Greek in the early medieval Latin West, Aristotle was practically unknown there from c. AD 600 to c. 1100 except through the Latin translation of the Organon made by Boethius.
The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox receive several additional books in to their canons based upon their presence in manuscripts of the ancient translation of the Old Testament in to Greek, the Septuagint ( although some of these books, such as Sirach and Tobit, are now known to be extant in Hebrew or Aramaic originals, being found amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls ).
The spelling and names in both the 1609 – 1610 Douay Old Testament ( and in the 1582 Rheims New Testament ) and the 1749 revision by Bishop Challoner ( the edition currently in print used by many Catholics, and the source of traditional Catholic spellings in English ) and in the Septuagint ( an ancient translation of the Old Testament in to Greek, which is widely used by the Eastern Orthodox instead of the Masoretic text ) differ from those spellings and names used in modern editions which are derived from the Hebrew Masoretic text.
Although the various Baltic tribes were mentioned by ancient historians as early as 98 B. C., the first attestation of a Baltic language was in about 1350, with the creation of the Elbing Prussian Vocabulary, a German to Prussian translation dictionary.
Christ () ( ancient Greek:, Christós, meaning ' anointed ') is a translation of the Hebrew מ ָ ש ִׁ יח ַ ( Māšîaḥ ), the Messiah, and is used as a title for Jesus in the New Testament.
The Wu Xing are chiefly an ancient mnemonic device for systems with five stages ; hence the preferred translation of " movements ", " phases " or " steps " over " elements.
According to the New American Bible, a Catholic Bible translation produced by the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, the story of the Nephilim in Genesis 6: 1-4 " is apparently a fragment of an old legend that had borrowed much from ancient mythology ", and the " sons of God " mentioned in that passage are " celestial beings of mythology ".
According to Gyula Moravcsik, this title was a simple translation of Béla's Hungarian title úr, but other historians believe it comes from the ancient Greek despotes ( literally, the master ).
However, Valla added the translation of ancient Greek works on mathematics ( firstly by Archimedes ), newly discovered and translated.
His nickname Unræd is usually translated into present-day English as " The Unready ", though, because the present-day meaning of " unready " no longer resembles its ancient counterpart, this translation disguises the meaning of the Old English term.
The Renaissance saw the continuation of interest in magic that had been found in the Mediaeval period, and in this period, there was an increased interest in Hermeticism amongst occultists and ceremonial magicians in Europe, largely fuelled by the 1471 translation of the ancient Corpus hermeticum into Latin by Marsilio Ficino ( 1433 – 1499 ).
* Genesis in Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, Greek, Latin, and English – The critical text of the Book of Genesis in Hebrew with ancient versions ( Masoretic, Samaritan Pentateuch, Samaritan Targum, Targum Onkelos, Peshitta, Septuagint, Vetus Latina, Vulgate, Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion ) and English translation for each version in parallel.
The translation of 129 works of ancient Greek physician Galen into Arabic by Hunayn ibn Ishaq and his assistants, and in particular Galen's insistence on a rational systematic approach to medicine, set the template for Islamic medicine, which rapidly spread throughout the Arab Empire.
Smith published what he said was a translation of these plates in March 1830 as the Book of Mormon, named after Mormon, the ancient prophet-historian who compiled the book, and on April 6, 1830, Smith founded the Church of Christ.
With the translation of Confucian texts during the Enlightenment, the concept of a meritocracy reached intellectuals in the West, who saw it as an alternative to the traditional ancient regime of Europe.
With the translation of Confucian texts during the Enlightenment, the concept of a meritocracy reached intellectuals in the West, who saw it as an alternative to the traditional ancient regime of Europe.
It is a purported translation of an ancient Greek work on Egyptian hieroglyphs based on later Latin versions, all of them unfortunately ignorant of the true meanings of the ancient Egyptian script, which was not correctly deciphered until Champollion in the 19th century.
He claimed to have collected word-of-mouth material in the Scots Gaelic said to be from ancient sources, and the work was his translation of that material.
In addition to a boom in translation, during the Romantic period numerous ancient works were rediscovered.
There exists no one definitive English translation of the decree because of the minor differences between the three original texts and because modern understanding of the ancient languages continues to develop.
In most ancient copies of the Bible which contain the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, the Book of Daniel is not the original Septuagint version, but instead is a copy of Theodotion's translation from the Hebrew, which more closely resembles the Masoretic text.
It is important to note that ancient precedent existed for alternative theories and developments which prefigured later discoveries in the area of physics and mechanics ; but in the absence of a strong empirical tradition, dominance of the Aristotelian school, and in light of the limited number of works to survive translation in an era when many books were lost to warfare, such developments remained obscure for centuries and are traditionally held to have had little effect on the re-discovery of such phenomena ; whereas the invention of the printing press made the wide dissemination of such incremental advances of knowledge commonplace.
Many ancient Greek works of science and philosophy were not available in Latin translation.
Buddhists do not worship Brahma ( a Hindu deity ) or " Deva " ( an ancient South Asian term for a deity, today meaning either a Hindi translation of the English " God "/ Latin " Deus " concept Christian Indians tend to use the term " Parameshvara " or " Supreme Creator God " for the Christian God the Father or a synonym for the ancient South Asian concept of Brahman ).

translation and text
The first stage of translation after glossary lookup is structural analysis of the input text.
Orazioni e frammenti ( now the standard text, with Italian translation, 1982 )
The works and fragments ( text with English translation, 2001 ) – reviewed in BMCR
Unlike his translation of the Pastoral Care, Alfred here deals very freely with his original and though the late Dr. G. Schepss showed that many of the additions to the text are to be traced not to Alfred himself, but to the glosses and commentaries which he used, still there is much in the work which is solely Alfred's and highly characteristic of his style.
Between 1424 and 1433 he worked on the translation of the Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers by Diogenes Laërtius, which came to be widely circulated in manuscript form and was published at Rome in 1472 ( the first printed edition of the Lives ; the Greek text was printed only in 1533 ).
Anaxagoras of Clazomenae: Fragments and Testimonia: a text and translation with notes and essays University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, ISBN 978-0-8020-9325-7
* Natural language understanding ( and subproblems such as text mining, machine translation, and word sense disambiguation )
This remarkable text, originally written in Latin, is extant only in the 1549 translation of Bishop John Ponet.
Theodotion's translation is much closer to the Masoretic text and became so popular that it replaced the original Septuagint version of Daniel, in all but two manuscripts of the Septuagint itself.
One of the most frequent speculations is that the entire book ( excepting 9: 4-20 ) was originally written in Aramaic, with portions translated into Hebrew, possibly to increase acceptance-many Aramaisms in the Hebrew text find proposed explanation by the hypothesis of an inexact initial translation into Hebrew.
This discovery has shed much light on the differences between the two versions ; while it was previously maintained that the Greek Septuagint ( the version used by the earliest Christians ) was only a poor translation, professor Emanuel Tov, senior editor of the Dead Sea Scrolls ' publication, wrote that the Masoretic edition either represents a substantial rewriting of the original Hebrew, or there had previously been two different versions of the text.
According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, " a comparison of the Masoretic text with the Septuagint throws some light on the last phase in the history of the origin of the Book of Jeremiah, inasmuch as the translation into Greek was already under way before the work on the Hebrew book had come to an end ...
Even if the text of the Septuagint is proved to be the older, it does not necessarily follow that all these variations first arose after the Greek translation had been made, because two different editions of the same text might have been in process of development side by side ..."
The Hebrew text of Jonah ( 1: 17 in English translation ), reads dag gadol ( Hebrew: דג גדול ), which literally means " great fish.
The Vulgate translation was affirmed to be authoritative for the text of Scripture.
The most detailed account of Mangonel use is from “ Eric Marsden's translation of a text written by Ammianus Marcellius in the 4th Century AD ” describing its construction and combat usage.
The Hebrew text with an English translation can be found in the Siddur of Philip Birnbaum.
The translation, as literary critics claim, was not based on Cervantes ' text but mostly upon a French work by Filleau de Saint-Martin and upon notes which Thomas Shelton had written previously.
It is said that his translation was the most honest of all translations, without expansions upon the text or changing of the proverbs.
The most widely known English language translation was made by Sir James Fergusson, formerly Keeper of the Records of Scotland, from text that he reconstructed using this extant copy and early copies of the original draft.
They included two nearly complete copies of the text, referred to as Text A () and Text B (), both of which reverse the traditional ordering and put the Te Ching section before the Tao Ching, which is why the Henricks translation of them is named " Te-Tao Ching ".
* Daodejing Wang Bi edition with English translation, Guodian text, and Mawangdui text-Chinese Text Project

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