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contract and bridge
Contract bridge is a trick-taking card game where on each of several deals the opposing sides first compete in a bidding auction for the right to establish the contract for that deal, the side winning the auction being known as the declaring side.
Although each variant of bridge has its own particular scheme for awarding and accumulating points, all are based upon whether or not the contract for each deal was made or defeated and by how many tricks.
The most common game variants of contract bridge are rubber bridge and duplicate bridge ; each has many further variants.
In the partnership card game contract bridge, the Blackwood convention is a popular bidding convention that was developed by Easley Blackwood.
In 1857 Nepveu negotiated a contract to build a railway bridge over the river Garonne at Bordeaux, connecting the Paris-Bordeaux line to the lines running to Sète and Bayonne, which involved the construction of a iron girder bridge supported by six pairs of masonry piers on the river bed.
The same year the company was given the contract for the Garabit viaduct, a railway bridge near Ruynes en Margeride in the Cantal département.
A certain amount of socializing might typically be expected during game play, as opposed to the relative silence sometimes expected during some strategy games like chess and go or restrictions on allowable conversations or actions found in some highly competitive games such as contract bridge.
Oh Hell ( also known as Oh Pshaw, Up the River, Up and down the River, Bumble, Vanishing Whist, Diminishing Whist, Hell Yeah !, Peanuts, Stinky Fingers, Get Fred, Gary's Game, Diminishing Bridge, Shit On Your Neighbor, " Screw Your Neighbor ", O ' Shay, Juego de Daniel, Nah Pearse, Old Hell, German Bridge in Hong Kong, and many variations of " Oh Hell " with euphemisms and other swearwords ) is a trick-taking card game in which the object is to take exactly the number of tricks bid, unlike contract bridge and spades: taking more tricks than bid is a loss.
* Roman ( bidding system ), a contract bridge bidding system
In the card game contract bridge, Stayman is a convention used by a partnership to find a 4-4 or 5-3 trump fit in a suit after making a one ( 1NT ) opening bid ; it has been adapted for use after a 2NT opening, a 1NT overcall and many other natural notrump bids.
* Grand slam, a bridge contract to win all thirteen tricks
* Any bid, pass, double, or redouble made in the bidding stage of contract bridge
* Precision Club, a bidding system in the game of contract bridge
The Losing-Trick Count ( LTC ) is an alternative, or supplement, in the card game contract bridge, to the high card point ( HCP ) method of hand evaluation to be used in situations where shape and fit are of more significance than HCP in determining the optimum level of a suit contract-it should only be used after a fit has been found.
There are also Staines clubs catering for rowing, sailing, cricket, hockey, running, rambling, martial arts ( jujitsu ), rifle & pistol shooting, bowls, chess, contract bridge, snooker / darts / pool / poker, and various football teams, as well as a district table tennis league.
The remaining two mental skills have changed over the years and come from this list: contract bridge, Backgammon, Mastermind, and most recently Sudoku.
* Butler scoring, a scoring system used in contract bridge
Precision Club is a bidding system in the game of contract bridge.
The Strong Club System is a set of bidding conventions and agreements used in the game of contract bridge and is based upon an opening bid of 1 as being an artificial forcing bid promising a strong hand.
The precursor to contract bridge, its predecessors were whist and bridge whist.
The main difference between auction bridge and contract bridge is that in auction bridge a game is scored whenever the required number of tricks ( 9 in No Trump, 10 in Hearts or Spades, 11 in Clubs or Diamonds ) is scored, and in contract bridge the number of points from tricks taken past the bid do not count towards making a game.

contract and principle
So strictly is this principle adhered to that no question is allowed to be raised as to the fairness or unfairness of the contract entered into ..." ( emphasis added )
Ten years later, limited liability, the key provision of modern corporate law, passed into English law: in response to increasing pressure from newly emerging capital interests, Parliament passed the Limited Liability Act 1855, which established the principle that any corporation could enjoy limited legal liability on both contract and tort claims simply by registering as a " limited " company with the appropriate government agency.
This principle governs the recovery of all compensatory damages, whether the underlying claim is based on contract, tort, or both.
Both are based on a set of principles, including design by contract, command-query separation, the uniform-access principle, the single-choice principle, the open-closed principle, and option-operand separation.
Because of this they are not opposed in principle to collectively held property if individual owners of the property consent to collective ownership by contract or other voluntary mutual agreement.
Manorialism, an essential element of feudal society, was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the villa system of the Late Roman Empire, was widely practised in medieval western and parts of central Europe, and was slowly replaced by the advent of a money-based market economy and new forms of agrarian contract.
The Federal States introduced the new principle of agreement or contract.
In arbitration law, separability describes the principle that an arbitration clause is considered separate from the contract in which it is contained.
Philo of Byzantium and Hero of Alexandria knew of the principle that certain substances, notably air, expand and contract and described a demonstration in which a closed tube partially filled with air had its end in a container of water.
However, Muni himself was " inflexible on matters of taste and principle ", once turning down an $ 800, 000 movie contract because he wasn't happy with the studio's choice of film roles.
" This is used in civil law to briefly indicate a principle ( adopted in some systems ) referred to as the synallagmatic contract.
He supplemented the supervisory principle with the idea of contract management ; that is, an administration by contract as opposed to trust, where the director would have a pecuniary interest in lowering the average rate of mortality.
Section 602 directs each Federal agency administering a program of Federal financial assistance by way of grant, contract, or loan to take action pursuant to rule, regulation, or order of general applicability to effectuate the principle of section 601 in a manner consistent with the achievement of the objectives of the statute authorizing the assistance.
The principles to which Beccaria appealed were Reason, an understanding of the state as a form of contract, and, above all, the principle of utility, or of the greatest happiness for the greatest number.
If the universe is finite in extent and the cosmological principle ( not to be confused with the cosmological constant ) does not apply, and the expansion speed does not exceed the escape velocity, then the mutual gravitational attraction of all its matter will eventually cause it to contract.
liberties not on the list, for example, the right to own certain kinds of property ( e. g. means of production ) and freedom of contract as understood by the doctrine of laissez-faire are not basic ; and so they are not protected by the priority of the first principle.
In principle, the parameters to define a contract are endless ( see for instance in futures contract ).
Attempts by the lender to carry an equity interest in the property in a manner similar to convertible bonds through contract have been therefore struck down by courts as " clogs ", but developments in the 1980s and 1990s have led to less rigid enforcement of this principle, particularly due to interest among theorists in returning to a freedom of contract regime.
Victim rights in contract law correspond to victim entitlements in extended markets and to the polluter pays principle in taxation.
The doctrine of a " scrivener's error " is the legal principle that a map-drafting or typographical error in a written contract may be corrected by oral evidence if the evidence is clear, convincing, and precise.

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