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medieval and centuries
Saint Thomas Aquinas's aesthetic is probably the most famous and influential theory among medieval authors, having been the subject of much scrutiny in the wake of the neo-Scholastic revival of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and even having received the approbation of the celebrated Modernist writer, James Joyce.
The hymns are short poems going back in part to the days of Prudentius, Synesius, Gregory of Nazianzus and Ambrose ( 4th and 5th centuries ), but mainly the work of medieval authors.
At around the same time in the medieval Islamic world, a vigorous monetary economy was created during the 7th – 12th centuries on the basis of the expanding levels of circulation of a stable high-value currency ( the dinar ).
The crossbow is portrayed as a hunting weapon on four Pictish stones from early medieval Scotland ( 6th to 9th centuries ): St. Vigeans no.
The East Slavic languages descend from a common predecessor, the language of the medieval Kievan Rus ' ( 9th to 13th centuries ).
The Estampie (, Occitan and, ) is a medieval dance and musical form, it was a popular instrumental style of the 13th and 14th centuries.
Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, John Horace Round and Frederic William Maitland, both historians of medieval Britain, arrived at different conclusions as to the character of English society before the Norman Conquest in 1066.
This changed the course of science in history, from a merely contemplative state, as it was found in ancient and medieval ages, to a practical, inventive state-that would have eventually led to the inventions that made possible the Industrial Revolutions of the following centuries.
It seems worth noting that the periods of medieval German literature span two or three centuries, those of early modern German literature span one century, and those of modern German literature each span one or two decades.
In the 19th century, as Norway was achieving independence after centuries of union with Denmark and Sweden, the stories of the independent Norwegian medieval kingdom won great popularity in Norway.
It was once unquestioned that medieval Irish literature preserved truly ancient traditions in a form virtually unchanged through centuries of oral tradition back to the ancient Celts of Europe.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader of the late 5th and early 6th centuries, who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the early 6th century.
The full flowering of the medieval labyrinth came about from the twelfth through fourteenth centuries with the grand pavement labyrinths of the gothic cathedrals, notably Chartres, Reims and Amiens in northern France.
The Middle Ages ( adjectival forms: medieval, mediaeval, and mediæval ) is the period of European history encompassing the 5th to the 15th centuries, normally marked from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire ( the end of Classical Antiquity ) until the beginning of the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery, the periods which ushered in the Modern Era.
" Historical martial arts " in both Asia and Europe are mostly based on such records of the late medieval to early modern period ( 15th to 17th centuries ; see also Koryū ).
According to Bart D. Ehrman, " These scribal additions are often found in late medieval manuscripts of the New Testament, but not in the manuscripts of the earlier centuries.
Most countries of Europe adopted a national flag in the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries, often based on older ( medieval ) war flags.
Over the following centuries, the temple was systematically quarried to provide building materials and material for the houses and churches of medieval Athens.
A fauchard is a type of polearm which was used in medieval Europe from the 11th through the 14th centuries.
After the breakup of the western Roman Empire, the study of rhetoric continued to be central to the study of the verbal arts ; but the study of the verbal arts went into decline for several centuries, followed eventually by a gradual rise in formal education, culminating in the rise of medieval universities.
Later attempts at deciphering hieroglyphs were made by Arab historians in medieval Egypt during the 9th and 10th centuries.
Evidence from medieval documents indicates that the medieval language spoken over the entirety of Sardinia and Corsica was similar to modern Nuorese ; all of the remaining areas are thought to have innovated as the result of heavy external influence from centuries of colonization by Italian and Spanish speakers.

medieval and Byzantine
A look at the classical, Byzantine, and otherwise medieval literature mentioning the site reveals a name change for part or all of Colossae to Cona or Chonae.
The portion of the Greek Arithmetica that survived, however, was, like all ancient Greek texts transmitted to the early modern world, copied by, and thus known to, medieval Byzantine scholars.
The word Tsar derives from Latin Caesar, but this title was used in Russia as equivalent to King ; the error occurred when medieval Russian clerics referred to the biblical Jewish kings with the same title that was used to designate Roman and Byzantine rulers-Caesar.
The medieval fiddle emerged in 10th-century Europe, deriving from the Byzantine lira ( Greek: λύρα, Latin: lira, English: lyre ), a bowed string instrument of the Byzantine Empire and ancestor of most European bowed instruments.
* Byzantine lyra, the medieval bowed instrument of the Byzantine Empire
* The Eastern Orthodox Church had a period of Byzantine iconoclasm during the late medieval years, in which some groups destroyed the church's religious imagery.
Babylonian astronomy served as the basis for much of Greek, classical Indian, Sassanian, Byzantine, Syrian, medieval Islamic, Central Asian, and Western European astronomy.
" The Early medieval Codex Argenteus and Codex Vercellensis, the Stockholm Codex Aureus and the Codex Brixianus give a range of luxuriously produced manuscripts all on purple vellum, in imitation of Byzantine examples, like the Rossano Gospels, Sinope Gospels and the Vienna Genesis, which at least at one time are believed to have been reserved for Imperial commissions.
* Byzantine Empire ( 330 / 476 / 629 to 1453 ), a Late Antiquity and medieval continuation of the Greek-speaking portion of the Roman Empire
Eastern Europe was influenced little by the jurisprudence of the Corpus Juris Civilis, though somewhat by the " Farmer's Law " of the medieval Byzantine legal system.
The early medieval slave trade was mainly confined to the South and East: the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world were the destinations, pagan Central and Eastern Europe, along with the Caucasus and Tartary, were important sources.
The scientific revolution was built upon the foundation of ancient Greek learning and science in the middle ages, as it had been elaborated and further developed by Roman / Byzantine science and medieval Islamic science.
It is sometimes cited as the notional end of the Middle Ages by historians who define the medieval period as the time between the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and the fall of the Byzantine ( Eastern Roman ) Empire.
The medieval Byzantine theme of Thrace contained only what today is Eastern Thrace.
* The Piccolo Museo San Paolo, a museum with a collection of medieval Byzantine and Russian artistic items.
Babylonian astronomy was the basis for much of what was done in Greek and Hellenistic astronomy, in classical Indian astronomy, in Sassanian, Byzantine and Syrian astronomy, in medieval Islamic astronomy, and in Central Asian and Western European astronomy.
It includes the Thyatian Empire, which could be compared to Byzantine Empire ; the Grand Duchy of Karameikos ( which includes the town of Threshold, the default setting of many classic D & D adventures ), comparable to medieval southeastern Europe ; the Principalities of Glantri, which is similar to medieval western Europe, ruled by wizard-princes ; the Ethengar Khanate, a Mongol-like society ; the merchant-run Republic of Darokin, which is based somewhat loosely on the mercantile states of Medieval Italy ; the Emirates of Ylaruam which have an Arabic flavor ; the Heldannic Territories, ruled by an order of religious Knights devoted to the Immortal Vanya, similar to the Teutonic Knights ; the Atruaghin Clans, which have an Amerindian feel ; the nation of Sind, based on India during the rule of the Mughals ; the Northern Reaches Kingdoms of Ostland, Vestland, the Soderfjord Jarldoms, based on Scandinavian kingdoms at various periods of history ; the Dwarven nation of Rockhome ; the elven Kingdom of Alfheim ; the Halfling lands of the Five Shires ; and the Alphatian Empire, ruled by wizards and other spellcasters.
The only western province where the Justinianic code was effectively introduced was Italy, following its recovery by Byzantine armies ( Pragmatic Sanction of 554 ), but a continuous tradition of Roman law in medieval Italy has not been proven.
The medieval ( Byzantine ) castle.
A number of ancient Roman, Byzantine and medieval Bulgarian buildings are preserved in the centre of the city.
The Byzantine Empire inherited Classical Greek culture directly, without Latin intermediation, and the preservation of classical Greek learning in medieval Byzantine tradition further exerted strong influence on the Slavs and later on the Islamic Golden Age and the Western European Renaissance.

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