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Page "Phloem" ¶ 22
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sugar and sinks
Movement occurs by bulk flow ; phloem sap moves from sugar sources to sugar sinks by means of turgor pressure gradient.
During the plant's growth period, usually during the spring, storage organs such as the roots are sugar sources, and the plant's many growing areas are sugar sinks.

sugar and cells
Bone cells also release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood sugar ( glucose ) and fat deposition.
In the 19th century, when studying the fermentation of sugar to alcohol by yeast, Louis Pasteur came to the conclusion that this fermentation was catalyzed by a vital force contained within the yeast cells called " ferments ", which were thought to function only within living organisms.
In 1897, Eduard Buchner submitted his first paper on the ability of yeast extracts that lacked any living yeast cells to ferment sugar.
In a series of experiments at the University of Berlin, he found that the sugar was fermented even when there were no living yeast cells in the mixture.
During the fermentation process, yeast cells in the must continue to convert sugar into alcohol until the must reaches an alcohol level of 16 %– 18 %.
Oxaloacetic acid or malate synthesized by this process is then translocated to specialized bundle sheath cells where the enzyme RuBisCO and other Calvin cycle enzymes are located, and where released by decarboxylation of the four-carbon acids is then fixed by RuBisCO activity to the three-carbon sugar 3-phosphoglyceric acids.
Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
* Blood glucose – Glucose is a simple sugar and the primary fuel for body cells.
* Secrete – To make and give off such as when the beta cells make insulin and then release it into the blood so that the other cells in the body can use it to turn glucose ( sugar ) into energy.
About two-thirds of body cells require insulin to absorb glucose and in its absence, they will not be able to use the glucose ( blood sugar ) for energy.
The proponents of IPT give the following explanation of the biology of cancer and its cells in order to understand the mechanisms of IPT, which relies upon insulin, the most integral component of IPT, having three significant actions upon cancer cells described below, as well as also dropping blood sugar levels and thus the energy source for cancer.
The transport of nutrients across epithelial cells through the jejunum and ileum includes the passive transport of sugar fructose and the active transport of amino acids, small peptides, vitamins, and most glucose.
Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and a common oxidizing agent ( electron acceptor ) is molecular oxygen ( O < sub > 2 </ sub >).
It is induced in the laboratory by immersing cells in strong saline or sugar ( sucrose ) solutions to cause exosmosis, often using Elodea plants or onion epidermal cells, which have colored cell sap so that the process is clearly visible.
Gels, creams or lotions may contain an acid to encourage dead skin cells to loosen, and an abrasive such as beads, sea salt, sugar, ground nut shells, rice bran or ground apricot kernels to scrub the dead cells off of the skin.
Bone cells release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood sugar ( glucose ) and fat deposition.
* Shedding light on the critical functions of carbohydrates, sugar molecules found on all living cells that are vital to fertilization, inflammation, blood clotting and viral infection.
The outer surface of the cell is a sea of lipids with a fleet of sugar molecules, many of which are attached to proteins, fats or both, that interact with molecules outside the cell and are critical for the communication between cells and the stickiness of a cell.
The primary fuels for the cells of our body are glucose ( a simple sugar ) and fatty acids ( compounds produced by the breakdown of fats ).
Summarized in a few words, the prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the respiration of oxygen in normal body cells by a fermentation of sugar.

sugar and actively
Cells in a sugar source " load " a sieve-tube element by actively transporting solute molecules into it.
The " debt slavery " is particularly worrying in large sugar cane farms, since sugar cane is a raw material for Ethanol, a product that the Brazilian government is currently actively encouraging the production and research.
They actively pursued good honest flavors and disparaged people more concerend with each and every gram of fat or sugar in a mouthful.

sugar and transport
Bundaberg Rum originated because the local sugar mills had a problem with what to do with the waste molasses after the sugar was extracted ( it was heavy, difficult to transport and the costs of converting it to stock feed were rarely worth the effort ).
Planters needed safe and efficient ways to transport the sugar from the plantations to the ports, in order to maximize their returns.
A variety of blood tests are available for analyzing cholesterol transport behavior, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, lipoprotein little a, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, blood sugar control: fasting, after eating or averages using glycosylated albumen or hemoglobin, myoglobin, creatine kinase, troponin, brain-type natriuretic peptide, etc.
Internal barge transport is important for bauxite, sugar, rice and aggregates.
In addition, drainage canals are important transport channels for collecting sugar on the estates and for personal travel.
# The DNA passes through a separate sugar transport protein ( ptsG ) in the inner membrane, and immediately circularises using the cos sites, 12-base G-C rich cohesive " sticky ends ".
The railway line was originally built to transport sugar cane to the central sugar factory in Basseterre.
It appears that in about 500 BC, residents of present-day India began making sugar syrup and cooling it in large flat bowls to make crystals that were easier to store and transport than the cane itself.
The haustorium contains amino acid and hexose sugar transporters and H < sup >+</ sup >- ATPases which are used for active transport of nutrients from the plant nourishing the fungus.
In 1685, King Louis XIV proclaimed " La Traite des Noirs ", which authorized the forcible removal of Africans from their homeland and their transport to work as slaves on the French sugar plantations.
The chip contains probe sets designed to monitor the expression of approximately 2000 human and mouse genes, including glycosyltransferases, glycan-binding proteins, glycan degradation proteins, intercellular protein transport proteins, sugar transporters, adhesion molecules, interleukins, mucins, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and more.
The Hershey train is an electrified train from Havana to Matanzas that was built by the Hershey Company in order to facilitate transport of workers and products after it had bought sugar plantations in 1916.
It was originally created as an easier way to transport sugar.
Boron is important for binding of pectins in the RGII region of the primary cell wall, secondary roles may be in sugar transport, cell division, and synthesizing certain enzymes.
The harbour features several sugar towers for loading locally produced sugar into transport ships, and a tower for loading flour for transport.
While cells expend energy to transport ions and establish a transmembrane potential, they use this potential in turn to transport other ions and metabolites such as sugar.

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