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Page "State of the art" ¶ 2
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European and Patent
Section 1 ( 4 ) applies in relation to proceedings before a relevant convention court under the European Patent Convention as it applies to a judicial proceeding in a tribunal of a foreign state.
* October 21 – The European Patent Institute is founded.
Whether a patent application relates to an invention is governed by Article 52 of the European Patent Convention, that excludes e. g. discoveries as such and software as such.
In 1995, the European Patent Office ( EPO ) granted a patent on an anti-fungal product derived from neem to the US Department of Agriculture and W. R. Grace and Company.
* European Patent Convention, a convention instituting the European Patent Organisation
Letter-bombs, along with anti-personnel mines, are typical examples of subject-matter excluded from patentability under the European Patent Convention, because the publication or exploitation of such inventions are contrary to the " ordre public "
Patent applications were filed in European countries ( priority: Switzerland ), the United States, and Japan, and the patents transferred to Daimler-Benz.
* European Patent Agency, now European Patent Office
* European Patent Attorney, a legal specialization for Representation before the European Patent Office
In Europe, " computer programs as such " are excluded from patentability and European Patent Office policy is consequently that a program for a computer is not patentable if it does not have the potential to cause a " further technical effect " beyond the inherent technical interactions between hardware and software.
However, some regional offices exist, such as the European Patent Office ( EPO ), which act as supranational bodies with the power to grant patents which can then be brought into effect in the member states, and an international procedure also exists for filing a single international application under the Patent Cooperation Treaty ( PCT ), which can then give rise to patent protection in most countries.
Within European Union member states, the EPO and other national patent offices have issued many patents for inventions involving software since the European Patent Convention ( EPC ) came into force in the late 1970s.
A summary of the developments concerning patentability of computer programs under the European Patent Convention is given in ( see G 3 / 08 ) as a response of the Enlarged Board of Appeal to questions filed by the President of the European Patent Office according to Art.

European and Convention
The following year, The Guardian challenged the succession law in court, claiming that it violated the European Convention on Human Rights, which provides " The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status.
Indeed, the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in Article 6 requires these features in the legal systems of its signatory states.
Lobbying at the 1995 Basel conference by LDCs, Greenpeace and key European countries such as Denmark, led to a decision to adopt the Basel Ban Amendment to the Basel Convention.
13 to the European Convention on Human Rights in February 2006.
As a result, Europe is a continent free of the death penalty in practice, all states but Russia, which has entered a moratorium, having ratified the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, with the sole exception of Belarus, which is not a member of the Council of Europe.
An amendment to the text of the Convention, known as the Gaborone Amendment would allow regional economic integration organizations ( REIO ), such as the European Union, to have the status of a member state.
All members of the Council of Europe ( which includes nearly all European countries, and every member of the European Union ) have signed the European Convention on Human Rights, which protects against double jeopardy.
This is allowed by the European Convention on Human Rights – note the word finally in the above quotation.
European acts Silver Convention, Love and Kisses, Munich Machine, and American acts Donna Summer and the Village People, were acts that defined the late 1970s Eurodisco sound.
A right to education has been created and recognized by some jurisdictions: Since 1952, Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education.
The European Convention on Human Rights ( ECHR ) ( formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms ) is an international treaty to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe.
The Convention established the European Court of Human Rights ( ECtHR ).
The European Convention is still the only international human rights agreement providing such a high degree of individual protection.
50 years of European Convention on Human Rights
Until recently, the Convention was also overseen by a European Commission on Human Rights.
The European Convention on Nationality ( E. T. S.
* European Convention on Nationality
* European Convention on Human Rights ( ECHR )
Category: Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights
After the stated aim of the National Convention to export revolution, the guillotining of Louis XVI of France, and the French opening of the Scheldt, a European military coalition was formed and set up against France.
Since the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998, the courts have been able to declare an Act of Parliament to be incompatible with the European Convention on Human Rights, but such a declaration of incompatibility has no legal effect unless and until it is acted upon by the government.

European and EPC
Among them there is the Centre for European Policy Studies ( CEPS ), Bruegel, the Global Governance Institute ( GGI ), the European Policy Centre ( EPC ), ThinkYoung, the Friends of Europe, the Lisbon Council, the European Centre of International Political Economy ( ECIPE ), and the Centre for the New Europe ( CNE ).
A European Defence Community ( EDC ) and a European Political Community ( EPC ).
The CFSP itself has its origins in the formation of European Political Co-operation ( EPC ) in 1970.
He also played an important role the Summit of The Hague in 1969, where the European leaders decided to relaunch European integration with two new initiatives: on the one hand, Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union ( EMU ), and on the other hand, European Political Cooperation ( EPC ), which foreshadow the euro and the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union today.
The patentability of software, computer programs and computer-implemented inventions under the European Patent Convention ( EPC ) is the extent to which subject matter in these fields is patentable under the Convention on the Grant of European Patents of October 5, 1973.
Under the EPC, and in particular its Article 52, " programs for computers " are not regarded as inventions for the purpose of granting European patents, but this exclusion from patentability only applies to the extent to which a European patent application or European patent relates to a computer program as such.
The European Patent Convention ( EPC ), Article 52, paragraph 2, excludes from patentability, in particular
The questions which were the subject of the referral related to the patentability of programs for computers under the European Patent Convention ( EPC ) and were, according to the President of the EPO, of fundamental importance as they related to the definition of " the limits of patentability in the field of computing.
Final interpretation of the law in this area thus continues to be the responsibility of national courts, following national case-law ( except when a European patent application is refused or when a European patent is revoked in opposition proceedings before the EPO, in which case the EPO has the final say regarding the interpretation of the EPC ).
According to a European Commission press release of 2002, " since the EPC came into force in 1978, at least 30, 000 patents for computer-implemented inventions have already been issued the EPO ".

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