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earliest and medieval
The earliest pioneers of chemistry and the scientific method, were medieval Arab and Persian scholars.
Standard works in Latin inherited from the medieval tradition formed the bulk of the earliest printing, but as books became cheaper, works in the various vernaculars ( or translations of standard works ) began to appear.
Some books ( guidebooks in particular ) suggest that mazes on cathedral floors originated in the medieval period as alternatives to pilgrimage to the Holy Land, but the earliest attested use of the phrase " chemin de Jerusalem " ( path to Jerusalem ) dates to the late 18th century when it was used to describe mazes at Reims and Saint-Omer.
Some of the earliest recorded speculations linked mind ( sometimes described as identical with soul or spirit ) to theories concerning both life after death, and cosmological and natural order, for example in the doctrines of Zoroaster, the Buddha, Plato, Aristotle, and other ancient Greek, Indian and, later, Islamic and medieval European philosophers.
A modern version of theses medieval chains is seen in the Faroese chain dance, the earliest account of which goes back only to the 17th century.
Philippe de Vitry was one of the earliest composers to use this technique, and his work evidently had an influence on that of Guillaume de Machaut, one of the most famous named composers of late medieval motets.
The city's oldest section is “ Gamla Stan ” ( Old Town ), located on the original small islands of the city's earliest settlements and still featuring the medieval street layout.
Distilling technology passed from the medieval Arabs to the medieval Latins, with the earliest records in Latin in the early 12th century.
Mystery plays and miracle plays ( sometimes distinguished as two different forms, although the terms are often used interchangeably ) are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe.
The jury arrangement has evolved out of the earliest juries, which were found in early medieval England.
" Most notable early medieval Polish works in Latin and the Old Polish language include the oldest extant manuscript of fine prose in the Polish language entitled the Holy Cross Sermons, as well as the earliest Polish-language Bible of Queen Zofia and the Chronicle of Janko of Czarnków from the 14th century, not to mention the Puławy Psalter.
Unlike many other medieval chronicles written by European monks, the Tale of Bygone Years is unique as the only written testimony on the earliest history of East Slavic people.
The earliest Welsh genealogies give Maximus the role of founding father for several royal dynasties, including those of Powys and Gwent, a role he also played for the rulers of medieval Galloway in Scotland, home to the Roman-era Novantae whose territory was also made independent of Roman rule by Maximus.
The earliest Welsh genealogies give Maximus ( referred to as Macsen / Maxen Wledig, or Emperor Maximus ) the role of founding father of the dynasties of several medieval Welsh kingdoms, including those of Powys and Gwent.
This earliest question mark was a decoration of one of these dots, with the " lightning flash " perhaps meant to denote intonation ( or a tilde or titlo, named after the Latin word titulus, as in “ ·~ ”, like those wavy and more or less slanted marks used in lots of medieval texts for denoting various things such as abbreviations, and that would become later various diacritics or ligatures or modified letters used in the Latin script ), and perhaps associated with early musical notation like neumes.
* Science ( Latin )-medicine ( itself a Latin loanword ) uses a large vocabulary of Latin terms ( sternum, appendix ), as a result of medieval advances in medical science being conducted in Latin-even if some of the earliest Latin medical texts were translations from Greek and Arabic.
Foxes were referred to as beasts of the chase by medieval times, along with the red deer ( hart & hind ), martens, and roes, but the earliest known attempt to hunt a fox with hounds was in Norfolk, England, in 1534, where farmers began chasing foxes down with their dogs for the purpose of pest control.
One of the earliest and anatomically convincing examples is the gaunt cadaver effigy of the medieval physician Guillaume de Harsigny ( d. 1393 ) at Laon.
The legend of Elffin's association with Taliesin is given at its fullest in the late medieval prose text Ystorya Taliesin, the earliest redaction of the tale known as Hanes Taliesin.
Hastings Rashdall set out the modern understanding of the medieval origins of the universities, noting that the earliest universities emerged spontaneously as " a scholastic Guild, whether of Masters or Students ... without any express authorisation of King, Pope, Prince or Prelate.
Culhwch (, with the final consonant of Scottish " loch "), in Welsh mythology, is the son of Cilydd son of Celyddon and Goleuddydd, a cousin of Arthur and the protagonist of the story Culhwch and Olwen ( the earliest of the medieval Welsh tales usually, but erroneously, referred to collectively as the Mabinogion ).
The Völsung Cycle is a series of legends about the clan, the earliest extant versions of which were recorded in medieval Iceland, and is also the subject matter of the Middle High German epic poem Nibelungenlied.
The Front Quadrangle sits on roughly the site of the medieval college, although of the earliest buildings, only Palmer's Tower in the north-eastern corner remains.
The main site of the College incorporates four medieval halls: Bedel Hall, St Mary Hall, St Martin Hall and Tackley's Inn, the last being the earliest property acquired by the college and the oldest standing medieval hall in Oxford.

earliest and ballads
The first clear reference to " rhymes of Robin Hood " is from the late-14th-century poem Piers Plowman, but the earliest surviving copies of the narrative ballads that tell his story date to the 15th century, or the first decade of the 16th century.
It is not supported by the earliest ballads.
Although this view has become increasingly popular, it is certainly not supported by the earliest ballads.
This practice is reflected in the ballads written about Turpin, the earliest of which, Dick Turpin, would appear to have been published in 1737.
Thereafter, Child devoted himself to the comparative study of British vernacular ballads, using methods adopted from historical comparative philology to arrive at the earliest attested versions.
This song was one of the earliest of the American ballads.
He appears in the earliest recorded Robin Hood ballads and stories.
The earliest ballads do not feature an origin story for this character, but one was soon to follow.
In England songs about military and naval subjects were a major part of the output of ballad writers from the 16th century onwards, including one of the earliest British ballads ‘ The Ballad of Chevy Chase ’, which deals with the events of the Scottish victory of the Battle of Otterburn in 1388 and may date to the early 15th century.
The first of the two ballads of Chevy Chase was perhaps written as early as the 1430s, but the earliest record we have of it is in The Complaynt of Scotland, one of the first printed books from Scotland.
Much is present from the very earliest Robin Hood ballads, in which he often accompanies Little John on physical journeys and even gets involved in brawls.
He was a well-known figure at the time the earliest Robin Hood ballads likely developed in the 14th century.
He was present in the earliest ballads along with Little John and Much the Miller's Son.
One of the earliest collectors of Appalachian ballads was Kentucky native John Jacob Niles ( 1892 – 1980 ), who began noting ballads as early as 1907 as he learned them in the course of family, social life, and work.

earliest and Robin
In the earliest sources, Robin Hood is a yeoman, but he was often later portrayed as an aristocrat wrongfully dispossessed of his lands and made into an outlaw by an unscrupulous sheriff.
William Shakespeare makes reference to Robin Hood in his late-16th-century play The Two Gentlemen of Verona, one of his earliest.
The earliest surviving text of a Robin Hood ballad is " Robin Hood and the Monk ".
Though not seen as the most tyrannical of kings, unlike his son Prince Edward, discontent was common during Henry's time and, though traditionally thought of as belonging to the time of King John, the earliest Robin Hood sources and tales suggest that, if he existed at all, it was during Henry's reign.
The earliest reference to " Robin Goodfellow " cited by the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1531.
Andrew Wyntoun is most famous for his completion of an eight-syllabled metre entitled, Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, which contains an early mention of Robin Hood ; it is also cited by the Oxford English Dictionary as the earliest work in English to use the word " Catholic ": modernized " He was a constant Catholic ;/ All Lollard he hated and heretic.
He also appears in the earliest chronicle references to Robin Hood, by Andrew of Wyntoun in about 1420 and by Walter Bower in about 1440, neither of which refer to any other of the Merry Men, suggesting that Little John was particularly associated with him.
The earliest Batman and Robin figures had removable masks but they were easily lost and Mego noted that it was less expensive to create a new sculpt for Batman with a molded on mask and simply painted the mask onto Robin.
Adam de la Halle, also known as Adam le Bossu ( Adam the Hunchback ) ( 1237 ?– 1288 ) was a French-born trouvère, poet and musician, whose literary and musical works include chansons and jeux-partis ( poetic debates ) in the style of the trouveres, polyphonic rondel and motets in the style of early liturgical polyphony, and a musical play, " Jeu de Robin et Marion ", which is considered the earliest surviving secular French play with music.
His Jeu de Robin et Marion is cited as the earliest French play with music on a secular subject.
Some of the earliest examples happened on The New Scooby-Doo Movies, which featured appearances by characters from Harlem Globetrotters, Josie and the Pussycats, Jeannie, Speed Buggy, and Batman and Robin ( as well as The Addams Family and a year prior to having their own H-B series ).
The earliest medieval Robin Hood stories gave him no female companion.
In one of their earliest missions, the Outsiders teamed up with the Teen Titans, who were led at the time by Batman's sidekick, Robin.
Virtually every issue featured DC's two leading superheroes, Superman and Batman, with the earliest issues also featuring Batman's sidekick, Robin.
* Much the Miller's Son, one of Robin Hood's Merry Men from the earliest tales
The first medieval film was also one of the earliest films ever made, about Jeanne d ' Arc in 1899, while the first to deal with Robin Hood dates to as early as 1908.

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