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In the former Soviet Union and Eastern / Central Europe, the ZX Spectrum often has a cult status similar to the Commodore 64 in the Western Europe: it was the most popular 8-bit homecomputer and also the first computer for many computer and demoscene enthusiasts.
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former and Soviet
Mongi Slim of Tunisia and Frederick Boland of Ireland were early favorites in the running, but France didn't like the former and the Soviet Union would have none of the latter.
As a simple, cheap and reliable device, the Russian abacus was in use in all shops and markets throughout the former Soviet Union, and the usage of it was taught in most schools until the 1990s.
Cyrillic is one of the most widely used modern alphabetic scripts, and is notable for its use in Slavic languages and also for other languages within the former Soviet Union.
Karpov was born on May 23, 1951 at Zlatoust in the Urals region of the former Soviet Union, and learned to play chess at the age of four.
Armenia is interested in cooperating with other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States ( CIS, a group of 12 former Soviet republics ) and with members of the international community on environmental issues.
In the postcommunist era, Armenia faces the same massive environmental cleanup that confronts the other former Soviet republics as they emerge from the centralized planning system's disastrous approach to resource management.
Newly independent Armenia needed the income from foreign sales of Nairit rubber and chemical products, many of which had been assigned exclusively to that plant under the Soviet system and were still unavailable elsewhere to the former Soviet republics in the early 1990s.
Armenia is the second most densely populated of the former Soviet republics because of its small size.
Like other former States, Armenia's economy suffers from the legacy of a centrally planned economy and the breakdown of former Soviet trading patterns.
The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh ( which was part of Soviet Azerbaijan ) and the breakup of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s.
Armenia emerged from the umbra of the former Soviet Union in 1991 and migrated from a centrally planned economy ( Communist system ) to a market economy ( capitalist system ).
The nation is making substantial progress in privatizing ownership of what used to be state-owned industries under the former Soviet system.
During January – February 2007, Armenia ’ s trade with Russia and other former Soviet republics was $ 205. 6 million ( double the amount from the same period the previous year ), making them the country ’ s number one trading partner.
The Upper Lars border crossing ( at Darial Gorge ) between Georgia and Russia across the Caucasus Mountains served as Armenia's sole overland route to the former Soviet Union and Europe.
Armenia doesn't seem to be interested in cooperating with other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States ( a group of 12 former Soviet republics ) or with members of the international community on environmental issues.
It is very likely that these incidents have some connection with the former Soviet Ground Forces ' phenomenon of dedovshchina ( institutionalised bullying ).
These studies were performed mainly in the former Soviet Union, at the Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology and Virology, Republic of Georgia.
* 1992 – Russia and 12 other former Soviet republics become members of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Afghan Turkestan is a region in northern Afghanistan, on the border with the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
Continuing his work as a teacher and spiritual mentor, Steinsaltz established a network of schools and educational institutions in Israel and the former Soviet Union.
Deeply involved in the future of the Jews in the former Soviet Union, Steinsaltz serves as the region's Duchovny Ravin ( Spiritual Rabbi ), a historic Russian title which indicates that he is the spiritual mentor of Russian Jewry.
During his time in the former Soviet Union he founded the Jewish University, both in Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
former and Union
Carnegie's empire grew to include the J. Edgar Thomson Steel Works, ( named for John Edgar Thomson, Carnegie's former boss and president of the Pennsylvania Railroad ), Pittsburgh Bessemer Steel Works, the Lucy Furnaces, the Union Iron Mills, the Union Mill ( Wilson, Walker & County ), the Keystone Bridge Works, the Hartman Steel Works, the Frick Coke Company, and the Scotia ore mines.
* 1961 – The former Portuguese territories in India of Dadra and Nagar Haveli are merged to create the Union Territory Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
The Jewish University is the first degree-granting institution of Jewish studies in the former Soviet Union.
The Internal Troops were formed from the former Soviet Internal Troops after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
They have been used for over 90 years as an alternative to antibiotics in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, as well as in France.
Speakers of modern Baltic languages are generally concentrated within the borders of Lithuania and Latvia, and in emigrant communities in the United States, Canada, Australia and states of the former Soviet Union.
Beyond the Night closely follows an actual 20th-century missionary saga in Central Africa, and The Printing uses composite characters to portray the persecution of believers in the former Soviet Union.
Convinced that they had a " civilizing mission ", they envisioned Indochina's participation in a French Union of former colonies that shared the common experience of French culture.
In June 1989 the Croatian Democratic Union ( HDZ ) was founded by Croatian nationalist dissidents led by Franjo Tuđman a former fighter in Tito's Partisan movement and JNA General.
In the immediate aftermath of the war, the Government faced the challenge of managing relations with Britain's former war-time ally, Stalin and the Soviet Union.
In Russia, Ukraine and some other countries of the former Soviet Union, electrical multiple unit passenger suburban trains called Elektrichka are widespread.
The organization is active in integrating olim from South America and the former Soviet Union into Israeli society -- native Israelis and olim from non-English speaking countries now make up about 60 % of the Israeli Masorti population, the remaining 40 % are North American olim.
In modern contexts, all definitions of Central Asia include these five republics of the former Soviet Union: Kazakhstan ( pop.
former and Eastern
Eastern Tennessee was held for the Confederacy by two unimpressive brigadier generals appointed by Jefferson Davis, Felix Zollicoffer, a brave but untrained and inexperienced officer, and soon to be Maj. Gen. George B. Crittenden, a former U. S. Army officer with apparent alcohol problems.
Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun-Black Sea line named the Eastern Anatolia Region and the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the former largely corresponding to the western part of the Armenian Highland, the latter to the northern part of the Mesopotamian plain.
Some Eastern Orthodox Churches have issued statements to the effect that Anglican orders could be accepted, yet have still reordained former Anglican clergy ; other Orthodox churches have rejected Anglican orders altogether.
Due to the economic crisis that affected most former Eastern bloc countries, a steady reform in the military could not be carried out ; much of the equipment fell into disrepair and some of it was smuggled and sold to the international black market.
Economic malaise in the 1980s, along with resentment of Soviet oppression, contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union, the associated end of the Cold War, and the democratization and liberalization of the former Eastern bloc countries.
In an effort to accommodate the right, he stressed that the liberation of Eastern Europe should be by peaceful means only ; he also distanced himself from his former boss President Truman.
The London Docklands Development Corporation ( LDDC ), needing to provide public transport cheaply for the former docks area to stimulate regeneration, considered several proposals and chose a light rail scheme using dock railway infrastructure to link the West India Docks to Tower Hill and to run alongside the Great Eastern line out of London to a northern terminus at, where a disused bay platform at the west of the station was available, for interchange with the Central Line and main lines.
The fall of communist regimes in the former Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc convinced them it was a failed system.
From the time of Otto the Great onward, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia became the Holy Roman Empire.
Recent examples of nations which have undergone democratic reforms but have not adopted the FPTP system include South Africa, almost all of the former Eastern bloc nations, Russia, Afghanistan and Iraq.
The former Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries often designed their underground mass-transit and subway tunnels to serve as bomb and fallout shelters in the event of an attack.
Prominent issues in Hellenic foreign policy include the claims in the Aegean Sea and Eastern Mediterranean by Turkey, the Turkish occupation of Cyprus, the dispute over the name of the Republic of Macedonia ( recognized under the provisional denomination of " former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia "), and relations with the United States and Russia.
Ostdeutschland ( an ambiguous term meaning simultaneously East or Eastern Germany ) was not commonly used in East or West German common parlance to refer to the German Democratic Republic, because Ostdeutschland usually referred to the former eastern territories of Germany.
Although Hungary enjoyed one of the most liberal and economically advanced economies of the former Eastern bloc, both agriculture and industry began to suffer from a lack of investment in the 1970s, and Hungary's net foreign debt rose significantly — from $ 1 billion in 1973 to $ 15 billion in 1993 — due largely to consumer subsidies and unprofitable state enterprises.
After the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet satellites had to transition from a one-party, centrally planned economy to a market economy with a multi-party political system.
Across Europe Bricha (" flight "), an organization of former partisans and ghetto fighters, smuggled Jewish holocaust survivors from Eastern Europe to Italy, where small boats tried to breach the British blockade of Palestine.
Since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and more recently, the 2004 and 2007 enlargements of the European Union, the main waves of migration came from the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe ( especially Romania, Albania, Ukraine and Poland ).
In November 1937, Ribbentrop was placed in a highly embarrassing situation when his forceful advocacy of the return of the former German colonies led to the British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden and the French Foreign Minister Yvon Delbos offering to open talks on returning the former German colonies, in return for which the Germans would make binding commitments to respect their borders in Central and Eastern Europe.
Since Hitler was not really interested in obtaining the former colonies, especially if the price was a brake on expansion into Eastern Europe, Ribbentrop was forced to turn down the Anglo-French offer that he had largely brought about.
Lastly, the undue focus on the Marxist thought in the former Eastern Bloc, often forbidding social science arguments from outside the Marxist perspective, led to a backlash against Marxism after the revolutions of 1989.
Much of the research conducted around the middle of the 20th century occurred in the former Eastern Bloc before the cold war ended and has not held up to the scrutiny of stricter Western scientific standards.