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medieval and Western
Conversely the use of true brass seems to have declined in Western Europe during this period in favour of gunmetals and other mixed alloys but by the end of the first Millennium AD brass artefacts are found in Scandinavian graves in Scotland, brass was being used in the manufacture of coins in Northumbria and there is archaeological and historical evidence for the production of brass in Germany and The Low Countries areas rich in calamine ore which would remain important centres of brass making throughout the medieval period, especially Dinant – brass objects are still collectively known as dinanterie in French.
In a historical or geopolitical sense the term usually refers collectively to Christian majority countries or countries in which Christianity dominates or was a territorial phenomenon .“ Christendom is originally a medieval concept steadily to have evolved since the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the gradual rise of the Papacy more in religio-temporal implication practically during and after the reign of Charlemagne ; and the concept let itself to be lulled in the minds of the staunch believers to the archetype of a holy religious space inhabited by Christians, blessed by God, the Heavenly Father, ruled by Christ through the Church and protected by the Spirit-body of Christ ; no wonder, this concept, as included the whole of Europe and then the expanding Christian territories on earth, strengthened the roots of Romance of the greatness of Christianity in the world .”
The medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of enquiry and produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation ; and Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research The University of Bologne is considered the oldest continually operating university.
The term is generally not used in art history in speaking of medieval painting, although the Western tradition was developing in large altarpieces, fresco cycles, and other works, as well as miniatures in illuminated manuscripts.
Anecdotal literature reinforces this impression of general societal acceptance of the public celebration of male-male love ( which hostile Western caricatures of Islamic societies in medieval and early modern times simply exaggerate ).
Boyarin suggests that this in part reflects the fact that much of Judaism's more than 3, 000-year history predates the rise of Western culture and occurred outside the West ( that is, Europe, particularly medieval and modern Europe ).
Thomas Aquinas was the most important Western medieval legal scholar
In medieval ( 9th-11th centuries ) Byzantine sources written in Greek, Khazaria was referred to as Eastern Tourkia ( Τουρκία ), whereas the Principality of Hungary was referred to as Western Tourkia.
The Middle Ages ( adjectival forms: medieval, mediaeval, and mediæval ) is the period of European history encompassing the 5th to the 15th centuries, normally marked from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire ( the end of Classical Antiquity ) until the beginning of the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery, the periods which ushered in the Modern Era.
Babylonian astronomy served as the basis for much of Greek, classical Indian, Sassanian, Byzantine, Syrian, medieval Islamic, Central Asian, and Western European astronomy.
Medieval fortification is military methods of medieval technology that covers the development of fortification construction and use in Europe roughly from the fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Renaissance.
The identification of Mary Magdalene as prostitute and adulteress is perpetuated by much Western medieval Christian art.
The term is most often used with reference to medieval Western Europe.
He stands near the end of the classical development of philosophy, and was very influential on Western medieval philosophy ( Greek and Latin ) as well as Islamic thought.
The nature of God in monotheistic religions is a broad topic in Western philosophy of religion and theology, with a very old and distinguished history ; it was one of the central topics in medieval philosophy.
It is sometimes cited as the notional end of the Middle Ages by historians who define the medieval period as the time between the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and the fall of the Byzantine ( Eastern Roman ) Empire.
Some scholars interested in the relationships between Western philosophy and the history of ideas in Islam and Arabic philosophical medieval sources may have been influenced by Heidegger's work, including recent studies by Nader El-Bizri.
" Faced with the problem of " madness ," Western individualism proved to be ill-prepared to defend the rights of the individual: modern man has no more right to be a madman than medieval man had a right to be a heretic because if once people agree that they have identified the one true God, or Good, it brings about that they have to guard members and nonmembers of the group from the temptation to worship false gods or goods.
Western Christianity is a term used to include the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and groups historically derivative thereof, including the churches of the Anglican, Lutheran, Presbyterian, and other Protestant traditions that share common attributes that can be traced back to their medieval heritage.
Norwegian and Icelandic historians identified Rollo instead with Ganger Hrolf ( Hrolf, the Walker ), a son of Rognvald Eysteinsson, Earl of Møre, in Western Norway, based on medieval Norwegian and Icelandic sagas.
Manuscripts written in the medieval Bulgarian tsardom have, on the other hand, few Western Slavic features.
Western writers often describe the Zhou period as " feudal " because the Zhou's early rule invites comparison with medieval rule in Europe.
During the medieval period, Western scholarship on the Ismailis contributed to the popular view of the community as a radical sect of assassins, believed to be trained for the precise murder of their adversaries.

medieval and university
The doctorate ( Latin: doceō, I teach ) appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach ( Latin: licentia docendi ) at a medieval university.
Galen's works on anatomy and medicine became the mainstay of the medieval physician's university curriculum, alongside Ibn Sina's The Canon of Medicine which elaborated on Galen's works.
Later, in medieval Europe, Galen's writings on anatomy became the mainstay of the medieval physician's university curriculum along ; but they suffered greatly from stasis and intellectual stagnation.
A studium generale ( a medieval university education ) was founded in 1425, although it was not until 1438 that education was started by the Franciscan order for a baccalaureus degree.
Together the Trivium and Quadrivium constituted the seven liberal arts of the medieval university curriculum.
By the time of the medieval university system, knowledge was divided into the trivium — philosophy, including natural philosophy — and the quadrivium — mathematics, including astronomy.
The medieval university had mainly been a school for theology.
If the old city of Utrecht offers both medieval and contemporary surroundings, the reputation of the university is a growing factor in the decision of its students to enroll.
The establishment of a medieval university in Prague was inspired by Holy Roman Emperor Charles of Luxembourg.
In medieval origin, these were the halls in which the members of the university lived together during term time.
* Henry Mansfield ( died 1328 ), English medieval theologian, philosopher, churchman, and university chancellor
He stayed to teach and research medieval history at the university for several years.
A medieval university is a corporation organized during the High Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.
In addition, some of the greatest theologians of the High Middle Ages, Thomas Aquinas and Robert Grosseteste, were products of the medieval university.
The development of the medieval university coincided with the widespread reintroduction of Aristotle from Byzantine and Arab scholars.
In fact, the European university put Aristotelian and other natural science texts at the center of its curriculum, with the result that the " medieval university laid far greater emphasis on science than does its modern counterpart and descendent.
This 1300 manuscript is typical of the sort of book owned by medieval university students.
The city is known for its ancient university and its medieval minster, as well as for its high standard of living and advanced environmental practices.
* William de Wilton, an English medieval university chancellor
Liege Continues to be the economic and cultural capital of Wallonia with its university and, its medieval heritage, its sick but still functioning heavy industry.

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