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Justinian also strengthened the borders of the Empire from Africa to the East through the construction of fortifications, and ensured Constantinople of its water supply through construction of underground cisterns ( see Basilica Cistern ).
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Justinian and also
He had also sampled various special fields of learning, being unable to miss some study of divinity, Justinian ( law ), and Galen ( medicine ).
The regnal year of the emperor was also used to identify years, especially in the Byzantine Empire after 537 when Justinian required its use.
Justinian also had Anthemius and Isidore demolish and replace the original Church of the Holy Apostles built by Constantine with a new church under the same dedication.
Justinian was also concerned with other aspects of the city's built environment, legislating against the abuse of laws prohibiting building within of the sea front, in order to protect the view.
However, the social fabric of Constantinople was also damaged by the onset of Plague of Justinian between 541 – 542 AD.
During his reign Justinian also subdued the Tzani, a people on the east coast of the Black Sea that had never been under Roman rule before.
Justinian is considered a saint amongst Orthodox Christians, and is also commemorated by some Lutheran Churches.
Justinian also rebuilt the Church of Hagia Sophia ( which cost 20, 000 pounds of gold ), the original site having been destroyed during the Nika riots.
By degrees, however, Justinian came to understand that the formula at issue not only appeared orthodox, but might also serve as a conciliatory measure toward the Monophysites, and he made a vain attempt to do this in the religious conference with the followers of Severus of Antioch, in 533.
Justinian also interfered in the internal affairs of the synagogue., and he encouraged the Jews to use the Greek Septuagint in their synagogues in Constantinople.
Justinian also tried to find new routes for the eastern trade, which was suffering badly from the wars with the Persians.
Enraged, Emperor Justinian II dispatched his magistrianus, also named Sergius, to Rome to arrest bishop John of Portus, the chief papal legate to the Third Council of Constantinople and Boniface, the papal counselor.
Already weakened by the Slavic invasions at the end of the 6th century, which ruined the agrarian economy of Macedonia and probably also by the Plague of Justinian in 547, the city was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake around 619, from which it never recovered.
Emperor Justinian I also created the offices of quaesitor, a judicial and police official for Constantinople, and the quaestor exercitus, a short-lived joint military-administrative post covering the border of the lower Danube.
Roman law as preserved in the codes of Justinian and in the Basilica remained the basis of legal practice in Greece and in the courts of the Eastern Orthodox Church even after the fall of the Byzantine Empire and the conquest by the Turks, and also formed the basis for much of the Fetha Negest, which remained in force in Ethiopia until 1931.
Biovar Antiqua is thought to correspond to the Plague of Justinian ; it is not known whether this biovar also corresponds to earlier or smaller epidemics of bubonic plague, or whether these were even truly bubonic plague.
It is also sometimes referred to as the Code of Justinian, although this name belongs more properly to the part titled Codex.
Consciously desiring to emulate Emperor Justinian I ( r. 527 – 565 ), Basil also initiated an extensive building program in Constantinople, crowned by the construction of the Nea Ekklesia cathedral.
This was linked to Justinian ’ s decision to unify the office of consul with that of emperor thus making the Emperor the head of state not only de facto but also de jure.
Probably also the property of the Platonist school, which in the time of Proclus was valued at more than 1000 gold pieces, was confiscated ; at least, Justinian deprived the physicians and teachers of the liberal arts of the provision-money which had been assigned to them by previous emperors, and confiscated funds which the citizens had provided for spectacles and other civic purposes.
The synthetic culture with Hellenistic Thracian, Roman, as well as eastern — Armenian, Syrian, Persian — traits that developed around Odessus in the 6th century under Justinian I, may have influenced the Pliska-Preslav culture of the First Bulgarian Empire, ostensibly in architecture and plastic decorative arts, but possibly also in literature, including Cyrillic scholarship.
Most likely Dionysius was also of local Thraco-Roman origin, like Vitalian's family to whom he was related, and to the rest of the Scythian Monks and other Thraco-Roman personalities of the era ( Justin I, Justinian, Flavius Aetius, etc.
He was also the author of rhetorical exercises on philosophical themes ; of a Quadrivium ( arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy ), valuable for the history of music and astronomy in the Middle Ages ; a general sketch of Aristotelian philosophy ; a paraphrase of the speeches and letters of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite ; poems, including an autobiography ; and a description of the square of the Augustaeum, and the column erected by Justinian in the church of Hagia Sophia to commemorate his victories over the Persians.
Justinian had given military authority to the governors of individual provinces plagued by brigandage in Asia Minor, but more importantly, he had also created the exceptional combined military-civilian circumscription of the quaestura exercitus and abolished the civilian Diocese of Egypt, putting a dux with combined authority at the head of each of its old provinces.
Justinian and Empire
The region was then ruled by the Ostrogoths up to 535, when Justinian I added the territory to the Byzantine Empire.
Isidore of Miletus was a renowned scientist and mathematician before Emperor Justinian I hired him, “ Isidorus taught stereometry and physics at the universities, first of Alexandria then of Constantinople, and wrote a commentary on an older treatise on vaulting .” Emperor Justinian I appointed his architects to rebuild the Hagia Sophia following his victory over protesters within the capital city of his Roman Empire, Constantinople.
Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles originally planned on a main hall of the Hagia Sophia that measured 230 feet by 250 feet, making it the largest church in Constantinople, but the original dome was nearly 20 feet lower than it was constructed, “ Justinian suppressed these riots and took the opportunity of marking his victory by erecting in 532-7 the new Hagia Sophia, one of the largest, most lavish, and most expensive buildings of all time .” Although Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles were not formally educated in architecture, they were scientists that could organize the logistics of drawing thousands of laborers and unprecedented loads of rare raw materials from around the Roman Empire to create the Hagia Sophia for Emperor Justinian I.
During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the Empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the classical Roman Empire.
As a Christian Roman emperor, Justinian considered it his divine duty to restore the Roman Empire to its ancient boundaries.
Having thus secured his eastern frontier, Justinian turned his attention to the West, where Arian Germanic kingdoms had been established in the territories of the former Western Roman Empire.
Emperor Justinian reconquered many former territories of the Western Roman Empire, including Italy, Dalmatia, Africa, and southern Hispania.
In his efforts to renew the Roman Empire, Justinian dangerously stretched its resources while failing to take into account the changed realities of 6th-century Europe.
In order to bypass the Persian landroute, Justinian established friendly relations with the Abyssinians, whom he wanted to act as trade mediators by transporting Indian silk to the Empire ; the Abyssinians, however, were unable to compete with the Persian merchants in India.
Nor did its Germanic traditions offer any code of civil law required of urbanised society, such as Justinian I caused to be assembled and promulgated in the Byzantine Empire.
A period of instability then ensued, tempting the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian to declare war on the Ostrogoths in 535 in an effort to restore the former western provinces of the Roman Empire.
The Liber Pontificalis records that the following year John obtained valuable gifts as well as a profession of orthodox faith from the Byzantine emperor Justinian I the Great, a significant accomplishment in light of the strength of Monophysitism in the Byzantine Empire at that time.
After the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the Justinian Code remained in effect in the Eastern empire, known in the modern era as the Byzantine Empire ( 331 – 1453 ).
The codes of Justinian, particularly the Corpus juris civilis ( 529-534 ) continued to be the basis of legal practice in the Empire throughout its so-called Byzantine history.
In 554, Granada and southernmost Hispania Baetica were lost to representatives of the Byzantine Empire ( to form the province of Spania ) who had been invited in to help settle a Visigothic dynastic struggle, but who stayed on, as a hoped-for spearhead to a " Reconquest " of the far west envisaged by emperor Justinian I.