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Margaret and Murray
The term esbat in this sense was described by Margaret Murray.
Erroneously believing the coven to be a survival of the pre-Christian Witch-Cult discussed in the works of Margaret Murray, he decided to revive the faith, supplementing the coven's rituals with ideas borrowed from Freemasonry, ceremonial magic and the writings of Aleister Crowley to form the Gardnerian tradition of Wicca.
Subsequent research by the likes of Hutton and Heselton has shown that in fact the New Forest coven was probably only formed in the early 20th century, based upon such sources as folk magic and the theories of Margaret Murray.
The pioneers of the various Wiccan or Witchcraft traditions, such as Gerald Gardner, Doreen Valiente and Robert Cochrane, all claimed that their religion was a continuation of the pagan religion of the Witch-Cult following historians who had purported the Witch-Cult's existence, such as Jules Michelet and Margaret Murray.
Margaret Murray had mentioned this information in her 1933 book The God of the Witches, and Hutton theorised that Alex Sanders had taken it from there, enjoying the fact that he shared his name with the ancient Macedonian emperor.
Following the writings of suffragist Matilda Joslyn Gage and others, Margaret Murray, in her 1921 book The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, proposed the theory that the witches of the early-modern period were remnants of a pagan cult and that the Christian Church had declared the god of the witches was in fact the Devil.
Margaret Alice Murray ( 13 July 1863 – 13 November 1963 ) was a prominent British Egyptologist and anthropologist.
Margaret Murray was born in Calcutta, India on 13 July 1863.
Ten years later and having reached 100 years of age, Margaret Murray published her final work, an autobiography entitled My First Hundred Years ( 1963 ).
Later commenting on A Razor for a Goat, Richard Kieckhefer noted that when the book was first published " it was recognised as a biting critique of the views of Margaret Murray … Now, forty years later, Rose's book may perhaps seem more of a revisionist work within Murray's school of interpretation.
In 1994, folklorist Jacqueline Simpson published an article in the Folklore journal entitled " Margaret Murray: Who Believed Her, and Why?
" in which she took a particularly critical approach to the Murrayite theory, explaining its faults, and looking at the history of the hypotheses ' criticism ; within it she remarked that " No British folklorist can remember Dr Margaret Murray without embarrassment.
In the 1920s Margaret Murray theorized that a Witchcraft religion existed underground and in secret, and had survived through the witchcraft prosecutions that had been enacted by the ecclesiastical and secular courts.
Thus, Wicca in particular is sometimes referred to by its proponents as " The Old Religion ", a term popularised by Margaret Murray in the 1920s, while Germanic neopaganism is referred to in some of its varieties as Forn Sed (" Old Custom ").
These included ceremonial magic, folk magic, Romanticist literature, Freemasonry, and the historical theories of the English archaeologist Margaret Murray.
Another view is that Robin Hood's origins must be sought in folklore or mythology ; Despite the frequent Christian references in the early ballads, Robin Hood has been claimed for the pagan witch-cult supposed by Margaret Murray to have existed in medieval Europe.
In 1893 Washington married Margaret James Murray.
The word coven remained largely unused in English until 1921 when Margaret Murray promoted the idea, now much disputed, that all witches across Europe met in groups of thirteen which they called " covens ".
South Australia is famed for the above mentioned Barossa Valley ; in Western Australia the Swan Valley, Margaret River and Manjimup regions, as well as Broome in the north ; Victoria is famed for the Murray River regions and the Mornington Peninsula.
In 1933, the Egyptologist Margaret Murray published the book, The God of the Witches, in which she theorised that Pan was merely one form of a horned god who was worshipped across Europe by a witch-cult.
* Margaret Murray – The Divine King in England.
From the 1970s, these ideas were taken up by popular writers of second-wave feminism and expanded with the speculations of Margaret Murray on witchcraft, by the Goddess movement, and in feminist Wicca, as well as in works by Elizabeth Gould Davis, Riane Eisler, and Merlin Stone.
Drawing upon the work of Margaret Murray and Robert Graves, Stone postulates a prehistoric matriarchal religion, painting ancient societies, including Ancient Egypt as matriarchal paradises, destroyed by the patriarchal Indo-Europeans.
Hordern was born in The Poplars, an 18th century townhouse in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, the son of Margaret Emily ( Murray ) and Capt.

Margaret and accompanied
Malcolm was accompanied by Edward, his eldest son by Margaret and probable heir-designate ( or tánaiste ), and by Edgar.
This was in 1947 when the King, accompanied by Queen Elizabeth ( later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother ), Princess Elizabeth ( later Elizabeth II ) and Princess Margaret were travelling to South Africa.
In typical economic theory, this would be accompanied by austerity shock treatment, as is generally recommended by the International Monetary Fund: such a course was taken in the United Kingdom, where government spending was slashed in the late ' 70s and early ' 80s under the political ascendance of Margaret Thatcher.
In an attempt to balance their power, the queen-mother Catherine de ' Medici sent word to the more even-handed l ' Hôpital in Nice ( where he had accompanied the princess Margaret, now duchess of Savoy ) that he had been chosen to succeed François Olivier in the chancellorship of France.
In 1463 Fortescue accompanied Queen Margaret and her court in their exile on the Continent, and returned with them afterwards to England.
Margaret Wooler showed fondness towards the sisters and she accompanied Charlotte to the altar at her marriage.
Based on a suggestive phrase in a 1559 madrigal dedicated to Margaret of Parma, the illegitimate daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, which implied a long association with her, he may have accompanied her when she went to Naples in 1533, prior to marrying into the Medici family.
Margaret accompanied Louis on his first crusade and was responsible for negotiations and ransom when he was captured.
However, in 1935 the headquarters operation moved back to Glasgow as it accompanied the Glasgow station at North Park House, Queen Margaret Drive, Glasgow, near to the Glasgow Botanic Gardens.
At the age of five, Juliet accompanied her sister, Margaret Shelby, on an audition because no babysitter was available.
Margaret was one of Anne's chief ladies-in-waiting, and accompanied her to Calais, France in 1532, where it is presumed Anne and Henry VIII made secret plans to marry in the immediate future.
Edward's last visit was in 1306, travelling in a horse litter owing to age and illness, and accompanied by Queen Margaret.
The manor passed to the king in 1270, and together with the wardenship of the New Forest, which invariably accompanied the manor, it formed part of the dowry of four consecutive queens, Eleanor of Castile, Margaret of France, Isabella of France, and Philippa of Hainault.
* Art of the Garden was a collection of Margaret Woodbury Strong's garden paintings, accompanied by photographs of Ms. Woodbury Strong herself in her garden in nearby Pittsford, New York.
On April 5 of that year Brederode accompanied to the palace a body of 300 Knights, for whom he acted as the spokesman, to present to the regent, Margaret of Parma, a petition setting forth their grievances.
About 1525 he became Court Painter to Margaret of Austria, regent of the Netherlands at Mechelen and in 1535 he accompanied the Emperor Charles V, at the Conquest of Tunis ( 1535 ).
In 1424 Chartier was sent on an embassy to Germany, and three years later he accompanied to Scotland the mission sent to negotiate the marriage of James I's daughter, Margaret, then not four years old, with the dauphin, afterwards Louis XI.
In 1436, he accompanied Princess Margaret, daughter of James I, to France, for her marriage to the Dauphin Louis.
He was perhaps Hassan's closest political colleague and became his right hand man at meetings in London with British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher over the Dockyard Agreement and also accompanied him as his Deputy to meetings leading up to the Brussels Agreement in the early eighties.
Nancy Lea moved into the home of her son and daughter-in-law Henry and Serena Lea, accompanied by her son Vernal and younger daughters Margaret and Antoinette.
In June 1845, Margaret accompanied Sam to Tennessee for the funeral of Andrew Jackson.
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom | British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher reads the inscription on the front of the desk in 1979, accompanied by President Jimmy Carter.
Performances of " Desire "— accompanied by images of Richard Nixon, Margaret Thatcher, Paul Gascoigne, and Jimmy Swaggart — were meant as a criticism of greed ; cash rained the stage and Bono often portrayed Mirror Ball Man as an interpretation of the greedy preacher described in the song's lyrics.
When Edward went on summer campaign to Scotland in 1307, Margaret accompanied him, but he died in Burgh by Sands.

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