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Modern military theory attempts to challenge entrenched mindsets in dealing with asymmetric warfare, terrorism, and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
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Modern and military
Modern military camouflage makes use of # Disruptive patterning | disruptively patterned equipment, face paint and natural materials
Modern warfare since the late Renaissance has relied upon firearms, with wide-ranging effects on military history and history in general.
Modern historians assert that by October 1216 John faced a " stalemate ", " a military situation uncompromised by defeat ".
Modern air warfare technology and the invention of the atomic bomb had changed the importance of the military base.
Modern military doctrine, organization, and norms are all based on Napoleonic premises, even to this day — though whether these premises are necessarily also " Clausewitzian " is debatable.
Modern military rifles are fed by box magazines, while machine guns are generally ( but not always ) belt-fed.
Towards the end of its useful life, the sword served more as a weapon of self-defense than for use on the battlefield, and the military importance of swords steadily decreased during the Modern Age.
Modern wargaming originated with the military need to study warfare and to ' reenact ' old battles for instructional purposes.
Modern Western historians are clearly divided on the importance of the battle, and where it should rank in military history ; see below.
Modern military engineering still retains the Roman role of building field fortifications, road paving and the breaching of terrain obstacles.
* " Helmets ... A Medieval Note In Modern Warfare ", August 1942, Popular Science evolution of military helmets
Duels in this form were chiefly practised in Early Modern Europe, with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry, and continued into the modern period ( 19th to early 20th centuries ) especially among military officers.
Modern klezmer instrumentation is more commonly influenced by the instruments of the 19th century military bands than the earlier orchestras. The orchestration employed by Joel Rubin — one of the most experienced and knowledgeable contemporary klezmer musicians — represents a historically justified link with that of contemporary ethnic music ensembles of Romania and Hungary.
Modern scholars such as Peter Partner and Malcolm Barber agree that the name of Baphomet was an Old French corruption of the name Muhammad, with the interpretation being that some of the Templars, through their long military occupation of the Outremer, had begun incorporating Islamic ideas into their belief system, and that this was seen and documented by the Inquisitors as heresy.
* Staff ( military )— see Modern United States military usage for organization of Joint Staff ( J1 through J8 )
The council consists of film clips of actors portraying advisors in the areas of the military ( a brawny man, often drunk, angry or both ; he becomes a stereotypical American general when Modern Age is reached ), economics ( a smooth-talking merchant, later a snooty and suave businessman ), diplomacy ( in the Modern Age, a saucy femme fatale with a vaguely Eastern European accent ), technological progress ( a nerdy scientist ), and the people's happiness ( an Elvis Presley caricature, wearing sunglasses even in the Ancient period ).
Modern discourse generally speaks in terms of state power, indicating both economic and military power.
Modern and theory
Modern European conservatives such as Edmund Burke have found the extreme idealism of either democracy may endanger broader liberties, and similarly reject " abstract reason " as a guide for political theory.
Modern critical theory arose from the anti-positivist sociology of Max Weber and Georg Simmel, the Marxist theories of György Lukács and of Antonio Gramsci, towards that of the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt.
Samarrai, however, also advises to handle this theory with care, as Medieval and Early Modern Muslim scribes often used etymologically " fanciful roots " in order claim the most outlandish things to be of Arabian or Muslim origin.
Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann.
Modern scholarship has disproved Margaret Murray's theory, however various horned gods and mother goddesses were indeed worshipped in the British Isles during the ancient and early Medieval periods.
Less likely is the commonly proposed derivation from Welsh arth " bear " + ( g ) wr " man " ( earlier * Arto-uiros in Brittonic ); there are phonological difficulties with this theory — notably that a Brittonic compound name * Arto-uiros should produce Old Welsh * Artgur and Middle / Modern Welsh * Arthwr and not Arthur ( in Welsh poetry the name is always spelled Arthur and is exclusively rhymed with words ending in-ur-never words ending in-wr-which confirms that the second element cannot be wr " man ").
Primarily known for her work in Egyptology, which was " the core of her academic career ," she is also known for her propagation of the Witch-cult hypothesis, the theory that the witch trials in the Early Modern period of Christianized Europe and North America were an attempt to extinguish a surviving pre-Christian, pagan religion devoted to a Horned God.
As soon as Murray published her theory she received criticism from other historians who had studied the Early Modern witch trials.
Modern evolutionary theory defines fitness not by how long an organism lives, but by how successful it is at reproducing.
Modern quantum mechanics implies that uncertainty is inescapable, and thus that Laplace's vision needs to be amended: a theory of everything must include gravitation and quantum mechanics.
Modern uses of the word " theory " are derived from the original definition, but have taken on new shades of meaning, still based on the idea that a theory is a thoughtful and rational explanation of the general nature of things.
Other prominent academics associated with the University include Geoffrey Bennington, the creator of the MA programme in Modern French Thought ( Derrida, Lyotard ); Homi K. Bhabha ( postcolonialism ); Rachel Bowlby ( feminism, Woolf, Freud ); Geoff Cloke FRS ( Inorganic Chemistry ); Jonathan Dollimore ( Renaissance literature, gender and queer studies ); Katy Gardner ( social anthropology ); Gabriel Josipovici ( Dante, the Bible ); Michael Land FRS ( Animal Vision-Frink Medal )); Michael Lappert FRS ( Inorganic Chemistry ); Alan Lehmann FRS ( Genetics and Genome Stability ); ( Laura Marcus ( Woolf ); John Murrell FRS ( Theoretical Chemistry ); Peter Nicholls ( Pound, modernism ); John Nixon FRS ( Inorganic Chemistry )); Laurence Pearl FRS ( Structural Biology ); Guy Richardson FRS ( Neuroscience ); Jacqueline Rose ( feminism, psychoanalysis ); Nicholas Royle ( modern literature and theory ; deconstruction ); Alan Sinfield ( Shakespeare, sexuality, queer theory ); Norman Vance ( Victorian, classical reception ); Richard Whatmore & Knud Haakonssen ( intellectual historians ); Gavin Ashenden ( Senior Lecturer in English, University Chaplain, and Chaplain to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II ; Cedric Watts ( Conrad, Greene ); Marcus Wood ( postcolonialism ).
Modern scholars have reopened the question and some have found the assassination theory credible or compelling, but the theory is not universally accepted.
Modern physics describes gravitation using the general theory of relativity by Einstein, in which it is a consequence of the curvature of spacetime governing the motion of inertial objects.
Modern work on gravitational theory began with the work of Galileo Galilei in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
Modern Anglo-American law, like European civil law, is based on a will theory of contract, according to which all terms of a contract are binding on the parties because they chose those terms for themselves.