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Nabonidus and fled
Nabonidus was staying in the city at the time and soon fled to the capital, Babylon, which he had not visited in years.
On October 10, 539 BC, Nabonidus surrendered and fled from Cyrus.
Finally, Berossus claimed that Cyrus beat the Babylonian army, but this time, Nabonidus was supposed to have fled to nearby Borsippa.
Nabonidus was staying in the city at the time and soon fled to the capital, Babylon, which he had not visited in years.

Nabonidus and Babylon
The last Assyrian city to fall was Harran in south east Anotolia, this city was also the birthplace of the last king of Babylon, the Assyrian Nabonidus and his son and regent Belshazzar.
* Nebuchadnezzar's illness occurs in Babylon ; Nabonidus is stricken in Tema.
New evidence from Babylon has verified the existence of Belshazzar, the name first given in Daniel 5: 1, as well as his co-regency during the absence of his father, Nabonidus, in Temâ.
By the middle of the 6th century the king of Babylon was Nabonidus.
The short-lived 11th dynasty of the Kings of Babylon ( 6th century BC ) is conventionally known to historians as the Chaldean Dynasty, although only the first four rulers of this dynasty were known to be Chaldeans, and the last ruler, Nabonidus ( and his son and regent Belshazzar ) was known to be from Assyria.
Nabonidus proved to be the final native Mesopotamian king of Babylon, he and his son, the regent Belshazzar being deposed by the Persians in 539 BC.
For the unnamed " king of Babylon " a wide range of identifications have been proposed. They include a Babylonian ruler of the prophet Isaiah's own time the later Nebuchadnezzar II, under whom the Babylonian captivity of the Jews began, or Nabonidus, and the Assyrian kings Tiglath-Pileser, Sargon II and Sennacherib, Herbert Wolf held that the " king of Babylon " was not a specific ruler but a generic representation of the whole line of rulers.
* 539 BC – Cyrus the Great enters the city of Babylon, detains Nabonidus and ends the Babylonian captivity.
The temple was built in the 21st century BC ( short chronology ), during the reign of Ur-Nammu and was reconstructed in the 6th century BC by Nabonidus, ( the Assyrian born last king of Babylon ) in the 6th century BC.
Taylor found clay cylinders in the four corners of the top stage of the ziggurat which bore an inscription of Nabonidus ( Nabuna ` id ), the last king of Babylon ( 539 BC ), closing with a prayer for his son Belshar-uzur ( Bel-ŝarra-Uzur ), the Belshazzar of the Book of Daniel.
* 556 BC — Nabonidus succeeds Labashi-Marduk as king of Babylon.
* 556 BC — Rule of Nabonidus as king of Babylon
Gobryas was now made governor of the province of Babylon, and a few days afterwards the son of Nabonidus died.
Cyrus now claimed to be the legitimate successor of the ancient Babylonian kings and the avenger of Bel-Marduk, who was assumed to be wrathful at the impiety of Nabonidus in removing the images of the local gods from their ancestral shrines to his capital Babylon.
Nabonidus, in fact, had excited a strong feeling against himself by attempting to centralize the religion of Babylonia in the temple of Merodach ( Marduk ) at Babylon, and while he had thus alienated the local priesthoods, the military party despised him on account of his antiquarian tastes.
* 539 BC — Babylon is conquered by Cyrus, defeating Nabonidus.
* 539 BC / 538 BC — Death of Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon
However, the last king of Babylon, the Assyrian born Nabonidus, paid little attention to politics, preferring to obsess with worship of the moon god Sin ( mythology ), leaving day to day rule to his son Belshazzar.
The city became a bastion for the worship of the moon god during the rule of Nabonidus from 555-536 BC, much to the consternation of the city of Babylon in the south where Marduk remained the primary deity.
Belshazzar (; Biblical Hebrew בלשאצר ; Akkadian: Bēl-šarra-uṣur ), sometimes called Balthazar (), was a 6th century BC prince of Babylon, the son of Nabonidus and the last king of Babylon according to the Book of Daniel ( 2nd century BC ).

Nabonidus and where
Information regarding Nabonidus is chiefly derived from a chronological tablet containing the annals of Nabonidus, supplemented by another inscription of Nabonidus where he recounts his restoration of the temple of the Moon-god at Harran ; as well as by a proclamation of Cyrus issued shortly after his formal recognition as king of Babylonia.
" Nabonidus was dragged from his hiding-place, where the services continued without interruption.

Nabonidus and was
Centuries later, the neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus mentioned in his archaeological records that Ishtar's worship in Agade was later superseded by that of the goddess Anunit, whose shrine was at Sippar — suggesting proximity of Sippar and Agade.
* Nebuchadnezzar's " affliction " was of the mind whereas Nabonidus ' seems to have been a skin disease.
In line with the statement that Nabonidus " entrusted the kingship " to Belshazzar in his absence, there is evidence that Belshazzar's name was used with his father's in oath formulas, that he was able to pass edicts, lease farmlands, and receive the " royal privilege " to eat the food offered to the gods.
Nabonidus, was certainly not a Chaldean, ironically he was an Assyrian from Harran, the last capital of Assyria.
The last Babylonian king, Nabonidus ( who was Assyrian born, and not a Chaldean ), improved the ziggurat.
It was in the sixth year of Nabonidus ( 549 BC ) that Cyrus, the Achaemenid Persian " king of Anshan " in Elam, revolted against his suzerain Astyages, " king of the Manda " or Medes, at Ecbatana.
Some scholars think that Nebuchadnezzar's portrayal by Daniel is a mixture of traditions about Nebuchadnezzar — he was indeed the one who conquered Jerusalem — and about Nabonidus ( Nabuna ' id ).
For example, Nabonidus was the natural, or paternal father of Belshazzar, and the seven years of insanity could be related to Nabonidus ' sojourn in Tayma in the desert.
Fragments from the Dead Sea Scrolls, written from 150 BCE to 70 CE state that it was Nabonidus ( N-b-n-y ) who was smitten by God with a fever for seven years of his reign while his son Belshazzar was regent.

Nabonidus and by
Three Aramaic Dead Sea Scrolls fragments known as The Prayer of Nabonidus ( 4QPrNab, sometimes given as 4QOrNab ) seem to parallel the insanity suffered by Nebuchadnezzar as described in Daniel Chapter 4.
Labashi-Marduk reigned only for a matter of months, being deposed by Nabonidus in late 560 BC.
Of the reign of the last Babylonian king, Nabonidus ( Nabu-na ' id ), and the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, there is a fair amount of information available.
In October 539 BCE, Nabonidus defended Opis against the Persian Empire commanded by Cyrus the Great.
The last king of the Neo-Babylonian period, Nabonidus, also originated from Harran as substantiated by evidence from the temple of stele of his mother Adad-Guppi, who is suspected by some to be of Assyrian origin.
Sin's temple was rebuilt by several kings, among them the Assyrian Assur-bani-pal ( 7th century BCE ) and the Neo-Babylonian Nabonidus ( 6th century BCE ).
Ecbatana ( Old Persian: Haŋgmatana, Agbatana in Aeschylus and Herodotus, elsewhere Ἐκβάτανα Ekbatana, Agámtanu by Nabonidos, and Agamatanu at Behistun ; modern Hamadan, Iran ) ( literally: the place of gathering ; ; ) is supposed to be the capital of Astyages ( Istuvegü ), which was taken by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidus ( 549 BC ).
The bottom line is that Nabonidus was still alive when Cyrus conquered Babylon, and had not been replaced as the official king of Babylon by Belshazzar.
According to the Nabonidus Chronicle, Nabonidus was back from Temâ by his seventeenth year and celebrated the New Year's Festival ( Akk.

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