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Nabonidus and fact
This stated, the fact that Belshazzar did not disobey his father's command is evidence that Nabonidus remained the official ( and actual ) king of Babylon.

Nabonidus and had
Long before this, scholars had speculated that Nabonidus ' exile in Teima lay behind the story of Nebuchadnezzar's banishment and madness in Daniel chapter four.
Meanwhile, Nabonidus had established a camp in the desert of Arabia, near the southern frontier of his kingdom, leaving his son Belshazzar ( Belsharutsur ) in command of the army.
The Nabonidus Chronicle records that, prior to the battle ( s ), Nabonidus had ordered cult statues from outlying Babylonian cities to be brought into the capital, suggesting that the conflict over Susa had begun possibly in the winter of 540 BCE.
Nabonidus was staying in the city at the time and soon fled to the capital, Babylon, which he had not visited in years.
Croesus, now feeling secure, formed an alliance with Sparta in addition to those he had with Amasis II of Egypt and Nabonidus of Babylonia, and launched his campaign against the Persian Empire in 547 BC.
The bottom line is that Nabonidus was still alive when Cyrus conquered Babylon, and had not been replaced as the official king of Babylon by Belshazzar.
So Nabonidus took special care of these statues and made sure that their cultic personnel had to come along with him.
But this exposed him to criticism by his enemies, notably Cyrus, who was trying to show why he was a better king than Nabonidus had been, and took this as an example of Nabonidus lack of fitness to rule.
Regarding his return, this may have had to do with the mounting threat of Cyrus and growing disagreements with Belshazzar, who was relieved of his command directly after Nabonidus had come back, along with a number of administrators.
Meanwhile, Nabonidus, who had concealed himself, was captured, but treated honourably ; and when his wife died, Cambyses II, the son of Cyrus, conducted the funeral.
In addition, at the command of Marduk, the great lord, I settled in their habitations, in pleasing abodes, the gods of Sumer and Akkad, whom Nabonidus, to the anger of the lord of the gods, had brought into Babylon.
The Nabonidus Chronicle records that, prior to the battle ( s ), Nabonidus had ordered cult statues from outlying Babylonian cities to be brought into the capital, suggesting that the conflict had begun possibly in the winter of 540 BC.
Nabonidus was staying in the city at the time and soon fled to the capital, Babylon, which he had not visited in years.
The structure was built during the Early Bronze Age ( 21st century BC ), but had crumbled to ruins by the 6th century BC of the Neo-Babylonian period when it was restored by King Nabonidus.
King Nabonidus, the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in the 6th century BC, after " finding little left but the last stage and nothing to guide him as to the monument's original appearance ", had it restored in seven stages rather than three.

Nabonidus and strong
The story takes place in an unnamed city-state between Zamora and Corinthia during an apparent power struggle between two powerful leaders: Murilo, an aristocrat, and Nabonidus, the " Red Priest ," a clergyman with a strong power base. After he is delivered a subtle threat by Nabonidus, Murilo learns of Conan's reputation as a mercenary and turns to him for help.
It is eventually revealed that Nabonidus ' " usurper " is actually his pet, a ( relatively ) intelligent and strong ape-like creature, Thak, who got the better of his master.

Nabonidus and against
It was in the sixth year of Nabonidus ( 549 BC ) that Cyrus, the Achaemenid Persian " king of Anshan " in Elam, revolted against his suzerain Astyages, " king of the Manda " or Medes, at Ecbatana.
In the Nabonidus Chronicle it is said that Cyrus " marched against the country --, killed its king, took his possessions, put there a garrison of his own.
In October 539 BCE, Nabonidus defended Opis against the Persian Empire commanded by Cyrus the Great.

Nabonidus and himself
Belshazzar was the son of Nabonidus, who after ruling only three years, went to the oasis of Tayma and devoted himself to the worship of the moon god Sin.
According to Herodotus, Cyrus the Great spared Croesus's life and kept him as an advisor, but this account conflicts with some translations of the contemporary Nabonidus Chronicle ( the King who was himself subdued by Cyrus the Great after conquest of Babylonia ), which interpret that the king of Lydia was slain.
On October 29, Cyrus himself entered the city of Babylon and detained Nabonidus.
After taking revenge on the prostitute who turned him in ( he slays her new lover and drops her into a foul cesspit ), Conan sneaks into the Red Priest's booby-trapped mansion, only to find that Murilo and Nabonidus himself are being held captive by a mysterious third party that took Nabonidus ' place and impersonated him.

Nabonidus and by
Centuries later, the neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus mentioned in his archaeological records that Ishtar's worship in Agade was later superseded by that of the goddess Anunit, whose shrine was at Sippar — suggesting proximity of Sippar and Agade.
Three Aramaic Dead Sea Scrolls fragments known as The Prayer of Nabonidus ( 4QPrNab, sometimes given as 4QOrNab ) seem to parallel the insanity suffered by Nebuchadnezzar as described in Daniel Chapter 4.
Labashi-Marduk reigned only for a matter of months, being deposed by Nabonidus in late 560 BC.
Nabonidus proved to be the final native Mesopotamian king of Babylon, he and his son, the regent Belshazzar being deposed by the Persians in 539 BC.
The temple was built in the 21st century BC ( short chronology ), during the reign of Ur-Nammu and was reconstructed in the 6th century BC by Nabonidus, ( the Assyrian born last king of Babylon ) in the 6th century BC.
Of the reign of the last Babylonian king, Nabonidus ( Nabu-na ' id ), and the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, there is a fair amount of information available.
Information regarding Nabonidus is chiefly derived from a chronological tablet containing the annals of Nabonidus, supplemented by another inscription of Nabonidus where he recounts his restoration of the temple of the Moon-god at Harran ; as well as by a proclamation of Cyrus issued shortly after his formal recognition as king of Babylonia.
Nabonidus fled to Babylon, where he was pursued by Gobryas, and on the 16th day of Tammuz, two days after the capture of Sippar, " the soldiers of Cyrus entered Babylon without fighting.
* 539 BC — Babylon is conquered by Cyrus, defeating Nabonidus.
Some scholars think that Nebuchadnezzar's portrayal by Daniel is a mixture of traditions about Nebuchadnezzar — he was indeed the one who conquered Jerusalem — and about Nabonidus ( Nabuna ' id ).
Fragments from the Dead Sea Scrolls, written from 150 BCE to 70 CE state that it was Nabonidus ( N-b-n-y ) who was smitten by God with a fever for seven years of his reign while his son Belshazzar was regent.
The last king of the Neo-Babylonian period, Nabonidus, also originated from Harran as substantiated by evidence from the temple of stele of his mother Adad-Guppi, who is suspected by some to be of Assyrian origin.
Sin's temple was rebuilt by several kings, among them the Assyrian Assur-bani-pal ( 7th century BCE ) and the Neo-Babylonian Nabonidus ( 6th century BCE ).
Ecbatana ( Old Persian: Haŋgmatana, Agbatana in Aeschylus and Herodotus, elsewhere Ἐκβάτανα Ekbatana, Agámtanu by Nabonidos, and Agamatanu at Behistun ; modern Hamadan, Iran ) ( literally: the place of gathering ; ; ) is supposed to be the capital of Astyages ( Istuvegü ), which was taken by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidus ( 549 BC ).
According to the Nabonidus Chronicle, Nabonidus was back from Temâ by his seventeenth year and celebrated the New Year's Festival ( Akk.

Nabonidus and Babylonia
A chronicle drawn up just after the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, gives the history of the reign of Nabonidus (' Nabuna ' id '), the last king of Babylon, and of the fall of the Babylonian empire.
According to the Chronicle of Nabonidus, when Cassandane died, all the nations of Cyrus's empire observed " a great mourning ", and, particularly in Babylonia, there was probably even a public mourning lasting for six days ( identified from 21 – 26 March 538 BC ).
The Babylonian king Nabonidus, who was defeated and deposed by Cyrus, is denounced as an impious oppressor of the people of Babylonia and his low-born origins are implicitly contrasted to Cyrus's kingly heritage.
Nabonidus came from the unfashionable north of Babylonia, introduced foreign gods and went into a lengthy self-imposed exile which was said to have prevented the celebration of the vital New Year festival.
Cyrus's conquest of Babylonia was resisted by Nabonidus and his supporters, as the Battle of Opis demonstrated.

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