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Ptolemy ( c. AD 90 – c. AD 168 ) stated " We consider it a good principle to explain the phenomena by the simplest hypothesis possible ",.
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Ptolemy and c
The Hellenistic astronomers Hipparchus ( c. 150 BC ) and Ptolemy ( c. AD 150 ) subdivided the day sexagesimally and also used a mean hour, simple fractions of an hour (,, etc.
In the 2nd century, Ptolemy ( c. 90-c. 186 AD ) of Roman Egypt published a star catalogue as part of his Almagest, which listed 1, 022 stars visible from Alexandria.
** Berenice II, queen of Egypt, daughter of Magas, King of Cyrenaica ( in modern Libya ), whose marriage to Ptolemy III Euergetes has reunited her country with Egypt ( b. c. 267 BC )
** Ptolemy IV Philopator, Greek king of Egypt who has reigned from 221 BC and under whose weak and incompetent rule, heavily influenced by his favourites, much of Ptolemaic Syria has been lost and native uprisings have begun to disturb the internal stability of the country ( b. c. 238 BC )
** Arsinoe III, queen of Egypt, sister and wife of the King Ptolemy IV ( assassinated ) ( b. c. 246 BC )
** Cleopatra I Syra, queen of Egypt from 193 BC, wife of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and regent for her young son, Ptolemy VI Philometor ( b. c. 204 BC )
Claudius Ptolemy ( c. AD 130-170 ), the father of classical astrology, almost completely ignored houses ( Templa as Manlius calls them ) in his astrological text, Tetrabiblos.
* Berenice II, queen of Egypt, daughter of Magas, King of Cyrenaica ( in modern Libya ), whose marriage to Ptolemy III Euergetes has reunited her country with Egypt ( b. c. 267 BC )
* c. 150 CE – Claudius Ptolemy completes his Almagest that codifies the astronomical knowledge of his time and cements the geocentric model in the West
* c. 1350 – Ibn al-Shatir anticipates Copernicus by abandoning the equant of Ptolemy in his calculations of planetary motion, and he provides the first empirical model of lunar motion which accurately matches observations
* Arsinoe III, queen of Egypt, sister and wife of the King Ptolemy IV ( assassinated ) ( b. c. 246 BC )
* Cleopatra I Syra, queen of Egypt from 193 BC, wife of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and regent for her young son, Ptolemy VI Philometor ( b. c. 204 BC )
* Arsinoe II, queen to Lysimachus, the king of Thrace, and later wife of her brother, King Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt ( b. c. 316 BC )
Ptolemy and .
No attempt is made by Ptolemy to weld into a single scheme ( a-la-Aristotle ), these independent predicting-machines.
But that one should superimpose all these charts, run a pin through the common point, and then scale each planetary deferent larger and smaller ( to keep the epicycles from ' bumping ' ), this is contrary to any intention Ptolemy ever expresses.
If in any one calculation Ptolemy had had to invoke 83 epicycles all at once, while Copernicus never required more than one third this number, then ( in the sense obvious to Margenau ) Ptolemaic astronomy would be simpler than Copernican.
During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander.
It was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century AD astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations.
Another possibility, raised in an essay by the Swedish fantasy writer and editor Rickard Berghorn, is that the name Alhazred was influenced by references to two historical authors whose names were Latinized as Alhazen: Alhazen ben Josef, who translated Ptolemy into Arabic ; and Abu ' Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham, who wrote about optics, mathematics and physics.
Hipparchus's successor, Ptolemy, included a catalogue of 1, 022 stars in his work the Almagest, giving their location, coordinates, and brightness.
Like the earlier catalogs of Hipparchus and Ptolemy, Ulugh Beg's catalogue is estimated to have been precise to within approximately 20 minutes of arc.
Tacitus stated that they traded with Rhaetia, which in Ptolemy is located across the Danube from Germania Superior.
However, no Hermunduri appear in Ptolemy, though after the time of Ptolemy the Hermunduri joined with the Marcomanni in the wars of 166 – 180 against the empire.
Before the mention of Alemanni in the time of Caracalla, you would search in vain for Alemanni in the moderately detailed geography of southern Germany in Claudius Ptolemy, written in Greek in the mid-2nd century ; it is likely that at that time, the people who later used that name were known by other designations.
However, if we look for the peoples in the region from the upper Main in the north, south to the Danube and east to the Czech Republic where the Quadi and Marcomanni were located, Ptolemy does not give any tribes.
Whatever the truth behind this, the young king was forced to depend heavily on his Ptolemaic support and even struck portraits with the characteristic features of king Ptolemy I.
Ptolemy Philometor, who was Alexander's father-in-law, went over to his side, and Alexander was defeated in the battle of Antioch ( 145 BC ) in Syria, sometimes known as the battle of the Oenoparus.
He fled for refuge to a Nabataean prince, who murdered him and sent his head to Ptolemy Philometor, who had been mortally wounded in the engagement.
He married his paternal half-sister Olympias II of Epirus, by whom he had two sons, Pyrrhus II of Epirus, Ptolemy of Epirus and a daughter, Phthia of Macedon.